用例1:There must be rules to enforce intellectual property rights.
用例2:The old man vowed to prosecute anyone who trespassed on his private property.
用例3:The stolen property they found consisted of a laptop computer and some jewelry.
用例4:Commercial property values dropped precipitously during last year’s real estate crash.
用例5:Residential property values have fallen over the last decade in this neighborhood.


ですからstolen property(盗品)のように盗まれる対象にもなったりします。


用例1:This industrial estate is valued at 60 million dollars.
用例2:My grandmother owns a landed estate in Kentucky worth over five million dollars.
用例3:Geordie used to be a park ranger but now he’s a real estate agent.
用例4:This is the formal legal estate of the late Jimi Hendrix.
用例5:My father’s side of the family owns a large estate in northern Georgia.

「estate」は、landed estate(土地財産)やreal estate(不動産)のように財産としての「土地」を指す語です。


用例1:My dad made a small fortune in the ice cream business as a young man.
用例2:Bill Gates has amassed a personal fortune worth more than the annual GDP of some small countries.
用例3:My uncle made a considerable fortune in the stock market in the 1980s.
用例4:My cousin inherited on outrageous fortune from her father when he died.
用例5:You can make a bloody fortune in the stock market if you play your cards right.





(1)look for

用例1:I’m going to look for a way to go to school while continuing to work.
用例2:I heard that the local Denny’s is looking for people to hire.
用例3:I decided to look for a place to live in Los Angeles.
用例4:We are looking for a sign telling us which highway we’re on.
用例5:After graduating from college I decided to look for work in the automotive industry.

「look for」は、目的語に人や場所など具体的なものから、way(方法)のような抽象的なものまでとるように、「探す」という意味では最も使用範囲の広い、一般的な語です。


用例1:He searched her face for the cause of her displeasure.
用例2:Dan searched every pocket in his jean jacket in a futile attempt to find his car keys.
用例3:Let me search the database for any information about your ex-wife.
用例4:The police searched the house but were unable to find the wily suspect.
用例5:We searched the area but could not find any clues.




用例1:Local authorities vowed to hunt the killer down and bring him to justice.
用例2:So many people enjoy hunting deer in West Virginia.
用例3:He vowed to hunt his wife’s attacker with the help of all the resources he had available to him.
用例4:Drug dealers are predators who hunt youth and prey on kid’s need for excitement.
用例5:Tigers are one of the few species of wild animal that hunts man.


look for:「探す」の意味の一般的な語



用例1:I couldn’t sleep because a baby was crying throughout most of the flight.
用例2:Hearing the voices of the wounded cry in agony always gave me the chills.
用例3:Tommy is the kind of child who cries anytime he doesn’t get something he wants.
用例4:My mother cries every time I say goodbye to her at the airport.
用例5:I saw a girl crying with her hands covering her face.



用例1:Did you hear that voice shouting in the distance?
用例2:The man sitting next to me at the baseball game shouted so much that his voice was hoarse by the seventh inning.
用例3:The crowd shouted for more after the band left the stage.
用例4:The doctor shouted at the nurse to get him a scalpel immediately.




用例1:There were girls screaming all around me at the first Beatles concert I went to.
用例2:At the hospital sometimes I hear children scream in the middle of the night.
用例3:Her mouth screamed words I didn’t know the meaning of.
用例4:The headline screams, ”15 Civilians Killed in Attack”.
用例5:I heard a woman scream in the apartment next door to me.






用例1:Despite attaining stardom at a young age, Ichiro managed to avoid the pitfalls that haunt other professional athletes.
用例2:It would avoid a lot of confusion if we just designated one person as navigator.
用例3:Avoiding conflict can often be the ruin of a good relationship.
用例4:My parents like to avoid risk, which is why they have no money in the stock market.
用例5:Avoiding danger is a difficult task when you work in a coal mine.



用例1:Elliot’s house collapsed during the earthquake but somehow Elliot escaped any major injuries.
用例2:The manufacturer escaped liability for the injury when the defense attorney proved that the product had been misused.
用例3:Animal-like moans escaped his lips.
用例4:I could not escape the conclusion that this used car salesman was trying to dupe me.




用例1:My husband has an annoying habit of evading issues that are on his mind.
用例2:Employees were not satisfied when the CEO evaded tough questions about future job cuts.
用例3:Willie evaded taxes for years but the IRS finally caught up with him.
用例4:The fact that he evaded as much responsibility as he could growing up explains why he is so incompetent now.






用例1:When my mom and dad met it was the fateful meeting of two lonely hearts.
用例2:Rex and I walked up the lonely road to the deserted mansion on the hill.
用例3:This rundown hotel is the loneliest place I’ve ever seen.
用例4:My grandfather has been a very lonely man since his wife passed away.
用例5:By most accounts Mary has led a lonely life since John’s murder over two and a half decades ago.



用例1:The desolate landscape I saw in Western films inspired me to Texas after high school.
用例2:The Mormons found a desolate spot in the American west to settle and build a community.
用例3:We found a desolate place in the canyon basin to camp.
用例4:The Sahara Desert is the most desolate desert I have ever seen.
用例5:Australia is a pretty desolate country except for the East Coast.



用例1:Wilbur had a melancholy expression on his face when that picture was taken.
用例2:Bob Dylan is perhaps the most melancholy figure in Rock’n’Roll.
用例3:Neil Young’s early records have a melancholy air that are great for listening to on a rainy afternoon.
用例4:Sarah’s melancholy eyes told me that she didn’t want me to go.







用例1:I think my acne will clear up if I use a different kind of soap.
用例2:I’ll show you a different way to pitch that won’t hurt your arm.
用例3:Henry’s different approach to learning was a challenge to his teachers.
用例4:Different species of animals cannot produce offspring together.
用例5:Let’s go to Jane now for a different perspective on President Bush’s speech.




用例1:Dennis has various kinds of plants in his backyard.
用例2:There are various forms of harassment that airline attendants frequently have to put up with.
用例3:Donating money is just one of the various ways you can contribute to the campaign.
用例4:Through the various stages of my life, knitting has been a wonderful friend to me.


a different kind of soapはこの石鹸が他の石鹸とは違うことに意味の重点があり、various kinds of plantsは植物の種類がたくさんあることに意味の重点があります。


用例1:The territory of the United States of America covers a diverse range of land.
用例2:I lived all around the world growing up so I was exposed to many diverse cultures.
用例3:I enjoy working with people from diverse backgrounds.
用例4:When I was unemployed I had some diverse sources of income that I could rely on.



various forms of harassmentは嫌がらせの形態がたくさんあることに意味の重点があり、diverse forms of plantは植物の形態が多様で広がりがあることに意味の重点があります。




用例1:We can prevent the spread of forest fires by being careful about when and where we start fires.
用例2:Put some vitamin E on your sore to prevent infection.
用例3:You can prevent accidents on the road by actually driving below the designated speed limit at all times.
用例4:Regular brushing and flossing helps prevent loss of gums.
用例5;The Catholic Church is doing all it can to prevent any further abuse by priests.




用例1:A fallen tree blocked our path on the way down the mountain.
用例2:Protesters blocked the entrance to the building.
用例3:The next exit is blocked due to construction on the offramp.
用例4:We can’t turn left here because the road is blocked.
用例5:He blocked a shot with his face.


したがって、blocked the path (entrance)、exit (road) is blocked、blocked a shotのように、何かの通過を「妨げる」場合に使います。


用例1:I hate instant replay because it interrupts the flow of the game.
用例2:Let me interrupt that thought with a comment of my own.
用例3:Martha has a bad habit of interrupting people’s conversations.
用例4:I used to have my office at home but my family would often interrupt my work with petty concerns.






用例1:The brutal murder known as the Mountain Meadows massacre is still a source of controversy among historians.
用例2:The brutal attack on the town left many suspected insurgents dead.
用例3:Stalin’s brutal repression of any dissent led to the purging of thousands of party members.
用例4:The brutal assault on the village left several people dead and scores of them injured.




用例1:Bullfighting and cockfighting are a couple examples of the many cruel sports that people find entertaining.
用例2:Not making the school play was a cruel blow to John’s confidence.
用例3:I played a cruel joke on my dad when I told him that I was quitting my job as a banker to pursue a career in art.
用例4:My first pet hamster had the cruel fate of being eaten by my dog Ralph.




用例1:Soon after arriving in Japan, Lars was confronted with the harsh reality of Tokyo winter without central heating.
用例2:I like Tanya but I find her harsh laugh annoying.
用例3:The coach had harsh words for me after I let my man score again.
用例4:It takes a while to get used to the harsh climate of the northern great plains.






用例1:Global warming could produce ecological disaster on a scale never before seen in the history of mankind.
用例2:The Mt. St. Helens eruption of May 18, 1980 is the first natural disaster that I remember.
用例3:Hurricane Ivan was a bad disaster for Cuba.
用例4:The Exxon Valdez oil spill was the biggest environmental disaster of 1989.
用例5:Bernie’s first business enterprise was a financial disaster.



用例1:The Chernobyl disaster was the worst environmental catastrophe in the history of the Soviet Union.
用例2:Climate experts say that global warming is an ecological catastrophe that is already beginning to change the earth’s climate and weather patterns.
用例3:Nuclear proliferation experts think that the risks of a nuclear catastrophe are even greater now than they were during the cold war era.
用例4:The recent string of natural catastrophes in Florida have some residents pondering a move out of the state.

「catastrophe」も自然環境や事態を表す形容詞とともに使われる頻度が高いですが、nuclear catastropheのように大規模な損害や破壊をもたらす「惨事」という意味で使います。


用例1:Greek tragedy is popular because many people can relate to its universal themes.
用例2:The Kennedy family has suffered through one terrible tragedy after another.
用例3:My first personal tragedy was when my sister died of polio at age seven.
用例4:The great tragedy of our times is the endless cycle of violence.






用例1:Being a farmer is hard work!
用例2:My mother enjoys the rewards she gets from doing social work.
用例3:My unemployed buddy is looking for just about any form of paid work.
用例4:Dr. Heafitz did pioneering work in the treatment given to cancer patients.



用例1:The first part-time job I had was at McDonald’s.
用例2:The first full-time job I had was as a middle school math teacher.
用例3:My dad always said that a well- paid job does not necessarily bring you happiness.
用例4:I got a temporary job as a waitress the summer after I turned 17.
用例5:I didn’t want to work in a low-paid job so I decided to continue my education after high school.



用例1:Trying to sort through all my mail is a difficult task.
用例2:Mowing my dad’s lawn is an uphill task, literally.
用例3:Taking the garbage out is such an easy task. I wonder why I don’t do it more often.
用例4:Can I call you back? I have a few urgent tasks I need to care of first.
(電話をかけ直してもいいですか?急を要する仕事が2, 3あるんです。)
用例5:My right hand was so badly injured, I could not even perform a simple task like opening a door.



用例1:Rodney had some unfinished business to take care of before he left town.
用例2:Gambling is a very profitable business if you play your cards right.
用例3:Baseball card collecting used to be a hobby but now it’s more like a serious business to me.
用例4:The company’s Board of Directors should manage more of the ordinary business.
用例5:Working as a lifeguard is a risky business.

「business」は、本来「商売、商取引」という意味で、unfinished businessのように「やるべきこと、用事」という意味でも使われます。


用例1:The application required that I write down my entire history of paid employment.
用例2:Full employment is an unachievable target in any economy because there are always some people.
用例3:My plan is to get part-time employment in the fast-food industry.
用例4:Are there any alternative employment opportunities on campus?
用例5:Henry is looking for permanent employment at a company with good benefits.



用例1:My father entered the medical profession at the age of 36.
用例2:Ms. Kelly began her career in the legal profession in Tennessee.
用例3:I hope my son gets a career in a learned profession like medicine or law.
用例4:Medicine was my father’s chosen profession.
用例5:I regret not entering the architectural profession at a younger age.



用例1:Ronnie enjoys manual occupations like carpentry and gardening.
用例2:Many people don’t realize that carpentry is a skilled occupation.
用例3:My father wants me to focus on finding a professional occupation.
用例4:Working as a racing car driver is a hazardous occupation.
用例5:My favorite occupation is teaching but the money isn’t very good.






用例1:He spoke with a quiet voice.
用例2:Our cat always took naps in the quiet corner of the house with the air vent.
用例3:My parents live on a quiet street next to a cemetery.
用例4:My cousin lived a quiet life and never asked too much from anybody.
用例5:Let’s find a quiet spot in the park and have lunch.


quiet lifeのように、「平穏な」という比喩的な意味にもなります。


用例1:A silent moment between acquaintances can be awkward sometimes.
用例2:I said a silent prayer when I found out my grandmother had cancer.
用例3:Silent viewing lets the students imagine what the speakers are talking about.
用例4:The silent majority of Americans are opposed to industry deregulation that could increase environmental pollution.
用例5:I love Charlie Chaplain’s silent movies.




用例1:I enjoy painting still life portraits of fruit.
用例2:Isn’t this still image of my dog cute?
用例3:The still air of the rainforest was heavy and pungent.
用例4:The still water of the pond was interrupted when Helen jumped in.
用例5:My father collects still photographs of the Civil war.






用例1:I like the friendly atmosphere of Layla’s pub.
用例2:I America is such a friendly society, why are there so many homicides there?
用例3:I always like to have friendly relations with my neighbors.
用例4:My homestay family gave me a friendly welcome as soon as I got off the boat.
用例5:I like the friendly manner in which service people treat customers here.



用例1:Dr. Weisenberg has an intimate knowledge of Native American languages.
用例2:A fear of intimate relationships kept my father from remarrying after the divorce.
用例3:Alex did not have intimate contact with the opposite sex for several years after his divorce.
用例4:Ted has always felt an intimate connection with the downtrodden.
用例5:The first time I took my girlfriend out we had an intimate conversation in the coffee shop.





用例1:Dan has been a close friend of mine since we were kids.
用例2:I never had a close relationship with my dad growing up.
用例3:Mary is the close relative that I get along with the best.
用例4:I’d like to introduce to you Sam Osborn, a close associate of mine.
用例5:There are close ties between the President’s family and my family.


本来は「近い」という距離を示す語であることから、close relationshipのように、比喩的な意味で「(距離的に)近い関係」を表す場合に用いられます。




用例1:Saddam Hussein liked to live in elegant surroundings.
用例2:The Westwater Inn is one of the most elegant restaurants in America.
用例3:On rainy days sometimes I hang out in the elegant lounge of the Ritz Hotel.
用例4:Tobacco stained blankets indicated that I was not staying in the most elegant hotel.
用例5:Let’s go to a French restaurant tonight for some elegant dining.




用例1:Cheetahs run with the most graceful motion if you watch them run in slow motion.
用例2:She had graceful curves and a beautiful face.
用例3:She soon mastered the graceful gestures required of someone in the royal family.
用例4:I followed the graceful arc of the javelin as it sailed through the air.
用例5:I was awestruck by the beauty of the graceful swan.




用例1:Abraham Lincoln was a modest man full of greatness.
用例2:Modest dress is more appropriate for church than shorts and sandals.
用例3:By all accounts, David Beckham is a modest celebrity.
用例4:My dad was a modest person with a great sense of humor.






用例1:I used a damp cloth to wipe the sticky stuff off the walls.
用例2:I hate trying to dry myself with a damp towel.
用例3:I buried my feet in the cold damp sand.
用例4:Frankie’s damp hair glistened in the early evening sun.
用例5:The damp conditions outside are not conducive to playing tennis.



用例1:Yamagata Prefecture’s moist soil is perfect for growing fruits and vegetables.
用例2:I missed the moist air of Miami when I was living in the Northeast.
用例3:I stopped hiking and sat down on the moist forest floor.
用例4:The moist condition of the room was a paradise for mold.
用例5:She has moist skin due to the copious amounts of lotion she applies.




用例1:I don’t like Southeast Asia’s humid climate.
用例2:I had trouble running for long in the humid air.
用例3:Many tropical plants require a humid atmosphere.
用例4:Bacterias flourish in humid environments.
用例5:The Southwest is the most humid region of the continental United States.






用例1:Divination is an ancient custom that originated in the Middle East.
用例2:It is local custom here to great someone with a hug and a kiss on the cheek.
用例3:Foot binding is an old custom in China.
用例4:It is a social custom in the US for a man to hold open the door for his date.
用例5:It is a traditional custom to take your shoes off before entering the house in Japan.




用例1:I know smoking is a bad habit but I just can’t seem to quit.
用例2:It is important to get into good dietary habits when you’re young.

用例3:Chewing tobacco is a nasty habit but a lot of the guys on the team seem to like it.
用例4:Sleeping with my socks on is an old habit which I’ve continued since I was a child.
用例5:Larry spent three years researching the sexual habits of elephants.






用例1:Maxwell suffered a serious foot injury yesterday.
用例2:Tony went to court for charges of serious fraud in seven states.
用例3:My brother has a serious offense on his record.
用例4:Brian has a serious problem with drinking.
用例5:The crime rate for serious crimes by juveniles has steadily increased for the past few years.




用例1:The emergency light in the cockpit alerted us that we were in grave danger.
用例2:There is grave concern at all levels that the situation in Iraq is getting worse.
用例3:I have grave doubts about whether Cathy will show up today.
用例4:Tim took a grave risk by swimming without a life jacket.
用例5:Terrorists pose a grave threat to our sense of security.




用例1:It is of crucial importance that young Americans understand the underlying principles of the US constitution.
用例2:Scottie Pippen played a crucial role in all six of the Chicago Bulls championships.
用例3:Lack of a solid running game was a crucial factor in the Saints loss to the 49ers.
用例4:Health care is a crucial issue in this year’s election debate.
用例5:A crucial difference between mom and dad is that dad will give you money anytime.






用例1:I need to fix the wall in my bathroom.
用例2:Benny taught me how to fix a car when I was sixteen.
用例3:Get a maintenance guy to fix this screw.
用例4:If we don’t fix this problem now, it will only get worse.
用例5:Mark fixed my door for free.




用例1:I don’t think it’s possible to repair the damage that has been done to my car.
用例2:Tim used to repair cars for a living but now he’s an insurance salesman.
用例3:My dad loves to repair his roof.
用例4:Call Maintenance and get somebody down here to repair the leak in the ceiling.
用例5:We need to repair this building before it totally falls apart.




用例1:That summer I spent a lot of time on the farm mending fences.
用例2:I’d like it if I could mend ways with my brother but he doesn’t even want to talk.
用例3:I bet we can mend this net with some nylon strings.
用例4:My grandmother volunteers her skills to mend clothes.
用例5:My dad actually enjoys mending roofs.








用例1:Management decided that more thorough preventive measures need to be taken to prevent defects.
用例2:We might have to take some drastic measures to keep this company afloat.
用例3:The production team scrambled to find a temporary measure for the defect.
用例4:The gubernatorial candidate swore that he would push for tough measures against drug offenders.



用例1:The investigator used unlawful means to get information out of the suspect.
用例2:Do the Iraq security forces have the effective means to deal with the insurgents?
用例3:The only practicable means of getting to the roof is by ladder.
用例4:Handguns and axes are the only means we have of defending ourselves from an intruder.



用例1:The only way to get better is by practice.
用例2:There are several different ways to catch fish.
用例3:Taeko told me I was holding chopsticks the wrong way.
用例4:One of the most effective ways I know to lose weight is to cut down on carbohydrates.






用例1:The Booker prize is Britain’s most prestigious literary award.
用例2:My mother’s company has an annual award for employee of the year.
用例3:The Fields Medal is the top award for outstanding achievement in the field of mathematics.
用例4:My high school offers an academic award for highest achiever in science.



用例1:The top prize in today’s game show is a free roundtrip vacation to Hawaii for two.
用例2:The Stanley Cup winners held the glittering prize above their heads for all in the stadium to see.
用例3:The big prize in this year’s competition is a big screen television.
用例4:The ultimate prize in this year’s competition is a brand new sports car!
用例5:This rich prize is worth more than its weight in gold.




用例1:The government is offering financial reward for any information that leads to the capture of the wanted criminals.
用例2:I figured that 500 dollars would be a just reward for finding our dog.
用例3:The tangible rewards of raising children can be felt every day.
用例4:The US and Iraqi governments are offering unequal rewards for any information that leads to the arrest of enemy insurgents.
用例5:The company is offering a rich reward to anyone who develops an effective quality initiative.





用例1:I’m thinking about putting up a physical barrier between my neighbor’s property and time.
用例2:Henry has had a psychological barrier to public speaking ever since that horrible speech last year.
用例3:There are cultural barriers to development that hinder economic growth in some countries.
用例4:Technical barriers remain in creating human-like androids.
用例5:We are connected despite the artificial barriers we construct.




用例1:Religious fanaticism is a major obstacle to peace in the Middle East.
用例2:Tony overcame some formidable obstacles in the last year of his life.
用例3:We’ll face some insuperable obstacles in the months ahead.
用例4:There are no legal obstacles to your participation in this week’s event.





用例1:I’m experiencing financial difficulty and need to borrow money from you.
用例2:Ian had some practical difficulties with his car this morning.
用例3:Amy experienced severe difficulty making it up the mountain.
用例4:We had considerable difficulty finding some of the houses on the list.






用例1:Circumstantial evidence points to Daniel’s brother as the prime murder suspect.
用例2:There is empirical evidence children exposed to classical music while still in the womb are smarter.
用例3:There is no conclusive evidence that Mr. Whittenburg was involved in this murder.
用例4:There is ample evidence to indict Mr. Crowley in this case.
用例5:Scientific evidence shows that man-made pollution has contributed to glabal warming.


circumstantial evidenceは「状況から明らか」、empirical evidenceは「経緯から明らか」という意味合いになります。



用例1:As of yet, there is no conclusive proof that prayer can heal sickness.
用例2:There is ample proof that cigarettes are bad for your health.
用例3:As of yet, there is no tangible proof of God’s existence.
用例4:The final proof in the case was a bloody glove.
用例5:There is no positive proof that life exists on Mars.




用例1:The young witness gave an eloquent testimony in front of a packed courthouse.
用例2:Mr.Jacob’s oral testimony lasted twenty minutes.
用例3:The witness’ sworn testimony was recorded by the court.
用例4:Mr. Hampton is being indicted on charges of giving false testimony in court.
用例5:The witness was asked to return to her seat after giving ample testimony.






用例1:What was the mental state of the defendant when he murdered Linda that evening?
用例2:I was in a steady state of unemployment when I met my wife.
用例3:I don‘t think Steve should be driving home in his current state.
用例4:H2O is called ice in its solid state.
用例5:I was in such a messed up emotional state when you called last night.



用例1:My 1957 Chevy is still in excellent condition.
用例2:Climatic conditions vary widely in this region.
用例3:My old lawnmower is still in poor condition.
用例4:My dad is in great physical condition for someone his age.
用例5:The economic condition of this country is strong and getting stronger.



用例1:Mark found himself in a stressful situation when he couldn’t find his airplane ticket.
用例2:The current situation doesn’t look to good for the Democrats.
用例3:A good way to get better at speaking a foreign language is to put yourself in real-life situations where you have to speak it.
用例4:The economic situation in Argentina has led to social unrest.
用例5:Kathy was put in a difficult situation when you asked her to the dance.


例えば、最初の用例のa stressful situationは、その場の状況全体がストレスを与えるようなものであることを意味し、3番目の用例のreal-life situationsは、その場の状況全体が架空ではない現実のものであることを表しています。




用例1:The manufacturing sector has lost 30,000 jobs in the last year.
用例2:Tax incentives for new business will create more jobs.
用例3:Tom should get a job in sales.
用例4:We’d like to offer you a job but there are no positions currently available.




用例1:My dad entered his occupation straight out of high school.
用例2:I’d like to practice an occupation that is lucrative.
用例3:I joined this occupation out of pressure from my parents.
用例4:We should choose an occupation that matches our set of skills.




用例1:Isabelle thought she had missed the vocation.
用例2:It takes some people years to find their true vocation.
用例3:Part of a teachers responsibility is to foster a vocation in students.
用例4:Elise is set on pursuing a vocation in medicine.





用例1:Alison is pursuing a career in law.
用例2:Shirley Temple began her singing and acting career at age four.
用例3:My dad, a retired teacher, is considering resuming his career.






用例1:I know the answer to this question!
用例2:I don’t know her name.
用例3:Excuse me, do you know the whereabouts of the closest park ranger’s office?
用例4:I just need to know the truth about what happened last night.




用例1:Mitch has no problem learning foreign languages.
用例2:School is not the only place you can learn skills when you are young.
用例3:Serious magicians have to learn several different tricks before they can go on stage.
用例4:I learned a few secrets from Governor Hackett when I was working for him.



用例1:A good education helped me realize my potential.
用例2:I did not realize the extent to which I hurt her feeling’s when I criticized her work.
用例3:I didn’t realize my mistake until it was too late.
用例4:Leslie realized the truth about her adoption when she was seven.



用例1:I honestly did not understand the meaning of her poem.
用例2:Human beings will never truly understand the mysterious nature of love.
用例3:As a teenager I did not understand the significance of eating a healthy diet.





用例1:Religious beliefs vary widely even within the same country.
用例2:People used to have the mistaken belief that the earth was flat.
用例3:You still haven’t convinced me that your belief in God is a justified belief.
用例4:There is a widespread belief in the second coming of Christ among evangelical Christians.
用例5:It is a fundamental Christian belief that Jesus is the son of God.




用例1:Raymond’s Christian faith is unwavering.
用例2:I made a good faith effort to get him to talk but he just wouldn’t.
用例3:My friend Jeff has a deep religious faith.
用例4:I don’t want to accept this position in bad faith.
用例5:Why do so many people have such blind faith in God?




用例1:Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are all monotheistic religions.
用例2:Some people prefer individual spiritual paths over organized religion.
用例3:The popularity of the Christian religion is growing in Asia.
用例4:Members of non-Christian religions vastly outnumber members of Christian religions in Japan.
用例5:Eastern religion is popular in California.





用例1:The mutual trust between Layla and I has been lost.
用例2:There is a sacred trust between mother and child.
用例3:I have complete trust in my wife.
用例4:Your career as a politician is over if you lose the public trust.
用例5:Sergeant Cropper has the absolute trust of his men.


sacred trust(神聖な信頼)、complete trust(完全な信頼)の例に見られるように、絶対的な無条件の信頼というニュアンスがあります。


用例1:Heavy reliance on amphetamine is prevalent among truckers.
用例2:Lately there has been an increasing reliance on foreign steel at US manufacturing plants.
用例3:There’s an excessive reliance on the use of force by this administration.
用例4:My mother’s great reliance on her caretaker Karen certainly wears her out.
用例5:Exclusive reliance on steroids for building muscles is not healthy.

「reliance」は、「依存」の意味で、何かに頼っている(rely on…)状態を表します。



用例1:The Senator vowed to win back the public confidence after the scandal broke.
用例2:I have complete confidence in Fernando’s ability to get the job done.
用例3:I have great confidence in Nancy’s ability.
用例4:Howard and I are good partners because we have each other’s mutual confidence.
用例5:We have full confidence in your ability to gather information.






用例1:More affordable medicine in the third world would save millions of lives.
用例2:There are many simple things we can do to save the planet: buy less, drive less and recycle more.
用例3:The knight could not save the queen from the clutches of the fire-breathing dragon.
用例4:Firefighters rushed in the burning apartments to save children trapped on the third floor.
用例5:My primary goal as a missionary is to save as many souls as I can.




用例1:The special forces team rescued three hostages but failed to rescue a fourth.
用例2:My plan calls for rescuing the economy by offering tax relief to middle-class Americans.
用例3:Which candidates can rescue the country from the threat of terrorism?
用例4:We run the risk of getting shot if we try to rescue the prisoners from jail.
用例5:The search party managed to rescue the child from the rubble.




用例1:Applying a hot compress to your face helps relieve pressure in your sinuses.
用例2:This ointment helps relieve muscle pain.
用例3:Some kids turn to drugs to relieve boredom.
用例4:How can our society relieve the burden on young parents who work.
用例5:How can we relieve poverty in our community?





用例1:I turned 30 a few weeks ago.
用例2:Just give me a few moments to relax before I go on stage.
用例3:Let me just have a few minutes to myself.
用例4:I haven’t had a drink in a few days.
用例5:Just give me a few seconds to find my wallet and keys.


用例1:I like a little bit of garlic in my ramen.
用例2:With a three games to zero lead, there is little doubt that the Yankees will win the series.
用例3:It’s been a little while since I’ve seen John.
用例4:There is little hope for rescuing the coal miners now.
用例5:In the end, there was little evidence that Iraq posed an imminent threat to the security of the United States.


a few…、a little…のように前にaがつくと、肯定的に「少しの…」の意味で、「ある」ことに重点が置かれているのに対して、aがつかないfew…、little…では、否定的に「ほとんど…ない」の意味で、「ない」ことに意味の重点が置かれます。


用例1:It is impossible to satisfy unlimited wants with scarce resources.
用例2:Should water be considered a free good or a scarce commodity that comes at a price?
用例3:Computers and TVs are scarce goods in this poverty stricken part of the world.
用例4:Rubber is scarce material in this part of the world.
用例5:Scarce labor in the countryside has forced many businesses to shut down.






用例1:My 1997 Toyota Camry is still in excellent condition.
用例2:Compared to a lot of public universities, this private university has excellent facilities.
用例3:Happy Meals are an excellent value for kids.
用例4:Ichiro provides an excellent example for young kids.
用例5:Living in a foreign country is an excellent opportunity to try new things.




用例1:My wife has exquisite tastes in wine.
用例2:Notice the exquisite beauty of this sculpture.
用例3:Caviar is an exquisite delicacy enjoyed by people all over the world.
用例4:Nothing beats the exquisite sensation of a first kiss.
用例5:My grandmother has an exquisite collection of antiques from England.


exquisite beauty (delicacy)などは、非常に高い技術で作られた結果の見事な出来ばえを表しています。


exquisite tastes (collection)などは、その対象に対して鋭敏で洗練された感覚や見極める眼を持っていることを意味しています。


用例1:I’m more interested in plebeian pursuits than fine arts.
用例2:My Volvo needs a little fine tuning before I can take it on a road trip.
用例3:I have a lot of fine china but I never use it.
用例4:My uncle likes to show off his fine collection of samurai swords.
用例5:Mr. Rogers sets a fine example for how to be a sensitive man.






用例1:Karen and I abandoned our plans to buy a new home after the stock market crash.
用例2:I abandoned the idea of going back to school when I found out how much tuition was.
用例3:We abandoned attempts to hitch-hike after one hundred cars in a row passed us by.
用例4:Despite spending decades in prison, Nelson Mandela never abandoned hope that he would be free one day.
用例5:The captain called for all crew to abandon ship.




用例1:Corporations face steep fines for illegally dumping waste in rivers.
用例2:Angela dumped a bag of coke in the toilet while the cops knocked on the door.
用例3:The cops will fine you if they catch you dumping rubbish out the window.
用例4:Where can we dump asbestos so that it doesn’t harm the environment?
用例5:Louis was supposed to dump the body in the river but instead he kept it in his trunk.



そのため目的語には、waste(廃棄物)、bag of cock(コカインの袋)、rubbish(ごみ)、asbestos(アスベスト)、body(死体)など捨てると危険なものや好ましくないものがきています。

(3)throw away

用例1:The Yankees threw away the lead in the bottom of the ninth.
用例2:Don’t throw away a chance to be in a commercial just because you don’t believe in the product.
用例3:They should lock that bastard up and throw away the key!
用例4:I forgot to throw away rubbish this morning.
用例5:Every heroin addict is throwing away their life.

「throw away」は、文字通り「投げ捨てる」という意味ですが、チャンスなど(lead、chance、life)を十分に活用せず、みすみす「逃す」の意味でよく使われます。

throw away:投げ捨てる



用例1:Ramen, coffee and beer consumed in a short period of time is a recipe for acute diarrhea.
用例2:There were acute food shortages during the war.
用例3:I feel acute pain in my back when I bend over.
用例4:I had an acute allergy attack while cleaning my apartment.
用例5:I’m concerned about an increasing of acute problem during operations.


acute pain(刺すように鋭い痛み)やacute attack(急性の(刺すように突然襲ってくる)発作)がその例です。

また、その鋭さから、acute problem(重大な問題)のように事態の重大性を表す意味にもなります。


用例1:I have had a keen interest in world affairs since I was a young kid.
用例2:John Kerry portrayed himself as a keen sportsman during the campaign.
用例3:Dogs have a keen sense of smell.
用例4:My aunt Thelma has a keen eye for interior decorating.
用例5:Taking a ski vacation this year sounds like a keen idea to me.




用例1:I need a long sharp knife for deboning the fish.
用例2:The two candidates provide a sharp contrast in campaigning styles.
用例3:Add some more coke to take the sharp edge off the rum.
用例4:A sharp fall in real estate prices led to the current economic recession.
用例5:Put the mask over your nose and mouth and take a quick sharp breath.



sharp edgeは、文字通りには「鋭い縁」の意味ですが、切るような刺激のある味(ピリッとした味)の意味でも使われます。




用例1:Wines from the Bordeaux region of France possess a distinctive character.
用例2:That tie definitely adds special character to your outfit.
用例3:Conan O’Brien is one of the most colorful characters on late night TV.
用例4:We are looking for someone with strong character and vision to serve as our next company president.
用例5:This bar is full of shady characters.





用例1:I’m a Gemini so I have a split personality.
用例2:Dictators tend to have forceful personalities.
用例3:My mother has a strong personality that some people find too domineering.
用例4:Liza has an outgoing personality.
用例5:Some people find Greg’s dominant personality intimidating.




用例1:Derrick has a bad temper, especially when he drinks.
用例2:Sylvia’s violent temper is a result of her abusive upbringing.
用例3:Max’s uncontrollable temper has cost him numerous jobs and relationships.
用例4:Every one of her ex-boyfriends will tell you that Laura has a nasty temper.
用例5:We are worried about Alex’s short temper.





用例1:$500 is the upper limit I’m willing to spread on a camera.
用例2:There are strict limits on the number of deer you can kill in a given hunting season.
用例3:The territorial limits of island nations have ramifications for the rights to marine resources.
用例4:I think there should be a legal age limit on driving.





用例1:We should place severe limitation on free trade until other countries’ labor and environmental protection standards match ours.
用例2:There are inherent limitations to how much technology can help us.
用例3:The first speaker discussed the effects of methodological limitations in the study of butterfly behavior and demography.
用例4:New therapies for treating HIV positive patients are more effective than previous treatments but still have serious limitations.


したがって、There are strict limits on the number of deer…の文では、捕獲してよい鹿の数に超えてはならない制限があることを意味し、We should place severe limitation on free trade…の文では、自由貿易に制限を加えるという行為が必要だという意味になります。


用例1:Severe restrictions on imports of genetically modified food are being considered by the European Union.
用例2:Due to the capacity of our operation line there are quantitative restrictions to the number of parts we can produce per day.
用例3:I think there are certain restrictions on where you can camp inside the park.






用例1:It remains to be seen whether the new coach can produce results for the Cincinnati Bengals.
用例2:Most manufacturing companies can produce goods more cheaply in China than Japan.
用例3:Nobody in this office is able to produce the document on time.
用例4:Indian sitar music produces a hypnotic effect on me.
用例5:Inspectors failed to produce evidence that Iraq was developing a nuclear weapons system.




用例1:The Itaipu Dam generates 75 billion kilowatts of electricity per year.
用例2:The new Toyota plant in town has generated a lot of income for the community.
用例3:U2’s latest album has generated tons of profit for its record label.
用例4:Parents and teachers are excited that the Harry Potter series is generating interest in reading.
用例5:We have one power generator which generates power for the entire house.



用例1:Our company manufactures over thirty different products.
用例2:My uncle works for a company that manufactures weapons.
用例3:I used to work for a company that manufactured components for Nissan automobiles.
用例4:Advances in technology have made it increasingly cheaper to manufacture steel.









用例1:Could you buy me a ticket to the baseball game?
用例2:I bought fifty shares of Toyota stock last year.
用例3:My dad is always telling my mom not to buy perishable goods in bulk.
用例4:My dream is to buy a house in the country.
用例5:I’m going to buy some new clothes for the party.




用例1:The production department purchases goods every Monday.
用例2:I’m considering purchasing a share of General Electric.
用例3:I hear that you can purchase cheap property in Romania.
用例4:My buddy purchased a bunch of land in Alaska.
用例5:How much does it cost to purchase the services of a maid?




用例1:I get most of my tickets online.
用例2:I’m going to get a car as soon as I have enough money saved up.
用例3:I’m going to get something to drink.
用例4:Is there any place to get a thing to eat around here?
用例5:I know where you can get a decent mountain bike for under $500.







用例1:Let me know if you change your mind about going to Mexico.
用例2:Penny likes to change the subject.
用例3:My friend went to court and changed his name from Earth to Peter.
用例4:You better change your attitude or you’re off the team.
用例5:We’re going to have to change the tunes to make this road trip any fun.




用例1:When Jim Jeffords became an independent in 2001 it altered the balance of power in the Senate.
用例2:Scientists should never alter the facts to fit their theory.
用例3:Ralph Nader’s 2000 Presidential campaign altered the course of history.
用例4:We can alter the shape of our bodies through exercise.





用例1:The new Stanford University football coach hopes to transform a program that hasn’t had a winning season in years.
用例2:Japanese scientists transformed stem cells into sperm cells.
用例3:Paul has an uncanny ability to transform any situation into a comedic event.
用例4:Reading this book has transformed my life.







用例1:Your perfume has a sweet fragrance.
用例2:Your pie has such a delicate fragrance.
用例3:The greenhouse had a predictably floral fragrance.
用例4:This perfume has a fine fragrance.
用例5:The fresh fragrance of the flowers filled the room.





用例1:Your apartment certainly has a distinctive aroma.
用例2:I am a slave to the pleasant aroma of coffee.
用例3:This wine has an especially sweet aroma.
用例4:I like the nutty aroma of this Brazilian blend.
用例5:I was aroused by the tantalizing aroma of her perfume.




用例1:Expensive perfume is such a waste of money.
用例2:The sweet perfume of roses fills the room.
用例3:Our store sells exotic perfume from all over the world.
用例4:No perfume is better than cheap perfume.
用例5:This is the least fragrant perfume I have barely smelled.






用例1:I could not hide my feelings for Enrique any longer.
用例2:I could not hide my smile after the Lakers lost.
用例3:Hide your face until I count to ten.
用例4:Tanya could no longer hide the fact that she was pregnant.
用例5:Dad could not hide his surprise when I told him I was engaged.




用例1:Our government spends a lot of time concealing the facts.
用例2:I couldn’t conceal my surprise at being voted smartest in my class.
用例3:Glenn tried to conceal his disappointment when he didn’t make the team.
用例4:Statistics about poverty conceal variations among households.
用例5:Don’t conceal your feelings for Sean any longer!




(3)cover up

用例1:No amount of positive spin could cover up the fact that Bush performed poorly in the debate.
用例2:If Scott Peterson is the murderer, then he did a masterful job of covering up the evidence.
用例3:Did the CIA cover up the truth about JFK’s assassination?
用例4:I’m way too disorganized to ever successfully cover up a murder.

「cover up」とは「隠蔽する」という意味です。



cover up:知られたくないことを隠蔽する



用例1:Give the clever girl a biscuit.
用例2:Charlie is a clever boy, especially when it comes to avoiding housework.
用例3:My buddy played a clever trick on me.
用例4:He’s a clever man with an iniquitous heart.
用例5:Do you have any clever ideas for how to get out of this mess?





用例1:It is the responsibility of intelligent beings to think about the consequences of their actions.
用例2:I would like to find a kind intelligent man and settle down.
用例3:I have a pretty intelligent network of friends.
用例4:Intelligent people tend to congregate together.
用例5:Susan is the most intelligent woman I have ever met.





用例1:Dad never fails to take wise precaution when he goes sailing.
用例2:A wise man isn’t always right about everything.
用例3:My father gave me wise counsel about woman before I went to college.
用例4:I think taking a year off of college was a wise decision.
用例5:Katherine is a wise woman for her young age.


wise precaution(周到な準備)やwise decision(賢明な決断)は、知識や経験に基づいた適切な判断を表していますし、a wise manやa wise womanは、豊富な知識や経験を有していて、賢明な判断や助言ができる人物を指すと考えられます。




用例1:Could you lend a little money to Jay?
用例2:I just can’t lend support to your organization.
用例3:Colleges lend weight to teacher recommendations when deciding which applicants to accept.
用例4:Could you lend me a hand in cleaning the house?
用例5:I would love to lend my name to this prestigious journal.



用例では、目的語として最も使用頻度が高いのはmoneyですが、これ以外は、lend support(支援する)、lend weight(重視する)、lend me a hand(私を手伝う)、lend my name(名前を貸す)など、「手渡す」ことができない抽象的なものとなっています。


用例1:I am currently renting four houses.
用例2:I’m renting a room to a young German woman.
用例3:I only rent apartments to people who look trustworthy.
用例4:Is it really true that landlords in Japan don’t like to rent property to foreigners?
用例5:Yes, we can rent you an accommodation for this weekend.



このほかによく使われる結びつきには、rent a land(土地を賃貸する)、rent a car(車を賃貸する)、rent a video(ビデオを賃貸する)などがあります。


用例1:I will not lease my land to a bunch of hillbillies.
用例2:We leased this mill on a ten year contract.
用例3:Hank leased a pub downtown to his brother Ray.
用例4:I am leasing this building to the LDS church.
用例5:Sorry, but we will only lease an aircraft to someone with valid pilot’s license.





用例1:I thought I had a firm grip on the wheel but it slipped.
用例2:Death has had a firm hold on my imagination since I was a kid.
用例3:Kids need a firm foundation in math before they can move on to physics.
用例4:I made a firm commitment to the company the day I joined.
用例5;I dug my spikes into the firm ground.


have a firm grip on…(…をしっかり握る)、have a firm hold on…(…を強く引きつける)、make a firm commitment to…(…への忠誠を固く約す)において、firmはそれぞれの動作の確実さを表しています。

物理的強度に関しては「幾分固い(fairly hard)」という意味を表し、the firm ground1(固いグラウンド)といった表現に現れています。


用例1:Company rules require us to wear a hard hat out on the production floor.
用例2:I sleep better on hard surfaces.
用例3:Inspectors could not find hard evidence that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction.
用例4:Is hard water just another name for “ice?”
用例5:Just give me the hard facts and leave the opinions to yourself.

「hard」は、「固い」という意味を表しますが、hard surfaces((ベッドの)固い面)のように、物理的強度に言及することもあれば、a hard hat(ヘルメット)、hard water(硬水)のように、(帽子や水の)特性に基づいた種類に言及することもあります。


hard evidenceはfirm (solid) evidenceと言うことも可能です。


用例1:I would like to buy a solid fuel furnace.
用例2:Latin is a solid foundation for the romance languages.
用例3:This wall is made of solid rock.
用例4:This table is made of solid oak.
用例5:This chair is made of solid wood.

「solid」は、(1)「固い」という意味(solid rock、solid oak、solid wood)と(2)「固体の」(a solid fuel 固形燃料)という物理的な意味で多く使われますが、(3)「確かな、確固たる」(a solid foundation)という抽象的な意味でも使われます。




用例1:Reactions to the O.J. Simpson trial was a sad reflection of race relations in the United States.
用例2:Let me tell you a sad story about my friend William.
用例3:Seth bid a sad farewell to his homestay family before getting on the plane back to New York.
用例4:The sad fact is that most Americans get their news from just a few news sources.
用例5:She gave me a sad smile before plunging the knife into her belly.


名詞を修飾する場合は、「悲しみを誘う…」(a sad reflection、a sad story、the sad fact)という意味で使われる傾向があります。

また、sad farewell、sad smileは、当該人物の悲しい気持ちが言葉や表情に表れていることを表していますが、unhappy farewell、unhappy smileとはあまり言いません。


用例1:My first unhappy memory is of my dog dying when I was six.
用例2:My unhappy childhood got worse when my dad left my mom for another woman.
用例3:Stephen King writes stories with unhappy endings.
用例4:My first marriage was an unhappy experience.


用例以外では、unhappy marriage(惨めな結婚)、unhappy situation(不幸な状況)といった表現があります。


用例1:Harry’s pathetic attempt at humor earned the ire of everyone at the table.
用例2:Mason is one of several pathetic figures I met at the family reunion.
用例3:Let’s let the pathetic creature inside.
用例4:That’s the most pathetic sight I’ve ever seen in my life.






用例1:What should we do with this empty space over here?
用例2:Pass me that empty bottle of shampoo.
用例3:I could not find an empty glass anywhere in the house.
用例4:I try to exercise on an empty stomach.
用例5:It’s been an empty house since the kids left.


用例のempty spaceは、その基本的意味を反映しています。

empty bottle、empty glass、empty stomach、empty houseは、何かをその空間に入れておくという特性がありますが、その時点では「空である」ことを表しています。



用例1:Jill and I found an abandoned rifle on the vacant land near our house.
用例2:I took the first vacant seat I could find.
用例3:The vacant site was a popular party spot for local teenagers.
用例4:There is a vacant post at the manager level.
用例5:Store your stuff in the vacant space in the garage.


「土地、場所」(land、site、space)、「席」(seat)といった物理的空間が、比喩的に抽象的な空間へと拡張し、vacant post(欠員)、vacant throne(空位)、vacant possession((不動産の広告で)即時所有可能)という表現でも使用されます。


用例1:I stared at the blank page for an hour before I could think of anything to write.
用例2:Draw anything that comes to mind on a blank sheet of paper.
用例3:Why are there so many blank spaces on your test?
用例4:Don’t these blank walls make you feel depressed?
用例5:Grab some blank paper from my desk.


用例(the blank page 白紙のページ、a blank sheet 白紙、 blank spaces 空所、blank walls 窓のない壁、blank paper 白紙)には、全てこの基本的意味が見てとれます。

さらに意味が拡張して、a blank look(無表情)、blank eyes(うつろな目)などの表現もあります。




用例1:I usually borrow money from my dad.
用例2:To borrow a phrase from the movies, “frankly my dear, I don’t give a damn.”
用例3:Rick’s going to let me borrow his car for the weekend.
用例4:Excuse me, could I borrow a pencil?
用例5:If I borrow a book from someone it’s a guarantee that I’ll never read it.




また、borrow a phrase「セリフを借りる」のように、人の言葉や考えを「借用する」という意味でも使われます。


用例1:The quickest way to get there would be to charter a plane.
用例2:You can charter jet for a couple grand.
用例3:Maybe we can charter a vessel from Tokyo to Shanghai.
用例4:I chartered a train from Amsterdam to Madrid.
用例5:We chartered an aircraft from Anchorage to Denver.




用例1:Let’s hire a car and take a road trip!
用例2:We hired a van for the camping trip.
用例3:We hired a boat to tour the Mekong river.
用例4:Angela hired a bike and rode around Arizona by herself.
用例5:We decided to hire a minibus for the church retreat.



用例では乗り物を目的語にとる頻度が高いことがわかりますが、hire a video(ビデオを借りる)、hire staff(職員を雇う)、hire a hall(ホールを借りる)といった表現でも使われます。




用例1:Wynona is such a lovely girl, isn’t she?
用例2:I’d like to introduce you to my lovely lady Elma.
用例3:Wow, what a lovely garden you have!
用例4:Upstate New York has a lovely countryside.
用例5:You have such lovely flowers in your garden.



この他に、lovely evening(大変愉快な晩)、lovely walk(楽しい散歩)といった表現もあります。


用例1:Pretty girls get all the attention.
用例2:My wife grew up in a pretty village outside of Hanoi.
用例3:Jessica is not just another pretty face.
用例4:That’s a really pretty picture of Mt, Rainier.
用例5:My grandparents walked through the pretty garden holding hands.


そのためa pretty girl (woman, lady, boy)という表現はありますが、a pretty manとはめったに言いません。


用例が示すように、lovelyと同様、見た目の愛らしさを表す傾向があり、人(の顔)や場所・風景に言及することが多く、lovelyのように、時間に関係した表現で用いることはありません(×pretty evening、×pretty morning)。


用例1:Bill thinks he can charm anyone with his sweet smile.
用例2:Lucinda sure has a sweet voice.
用例3:Kate sure is a sweet girl.
用例4:I can’t believe such a sweet boy got arrested for shoplifting.
用例5:Heidi has a sweet face and a wicked body.


そこから意味が拡張して、目にするもの、接する人や物が「心地よい、感じのよい、優しい・思いやりのある」(sweet smile 感じのよい笑顔)という意味でも用いられます。




用例1:I don’t think drinking a lot of sake and beer together is a good idea.
用例2:Do you have any new ideas for lyrics.
用例3:Do you have a clear idea of where you want to be in five years?
用例4:The basic idea of Christianity is that human nature is sinful.
用例5:Smoking is a bad idea for a vocalist.





用例1:You need to give some careful thought about who you would like to invite to the wedding.
用例2:The very thought of holding your hand makes me ill.
用例3:Every day I try to keep positive thoughts in my mind.
用例4:Lately I have given serious thought to giving up golf altogether.
用例5:Political thought in Russia has changed dramatically from the Cold War era.


a thoughtは、「思いつき」という意味で解釈される傾向がありますが、考えの深さなどを表す形容詞(careful、serious)を伴って、「慎重な考え(careful thought)」などの意味で使用されます。


用例1:Wishful thinking will get you nowhere without action.
用例2:Critical thinking skills are a must in today’s challenging work environment.
用例3:The Japanese educational system should foster creative thinking.
用例4:Quick thinking is an essential skill to have on the battlefield.


wishful thinkingは「希望的観測」という意味です。

また、動詞thinkの派生名詞として、「考えること(過程)」を基本的意味としますが、この意味は、critical (creative、quick、strategic) thinkingといった「形容詞+thinking」の形を、それぞれthink critically (creatively、quickly、strategically)のように「think+副詞」の形に直して考えると理解しやすいかもしれません。




用例1:North Korea has cut diplomatic relations with the United States.
用例2:The United States and Canada have close industrial relations.
用例3:Mark’s racist remarks have been a public relations nightmare for the company.
用例4:International relations is a popular field of study at Columbia University.
用例5:I am studying foreign relations between the United States and European countries.


3番目のpublic relationsは「対社会的関係」を表しますが、同じ表現で「宣伝活動」を表すこともあります。


用例1:I have always had a close relationship with my dad.
用例2:Julie and I have a very satisfying sexual relationship.
用例3:Good personal relationship are an important foundation of happiness.
用例4:I have a special relationship with my cousin Bob.
用例5:My research examines the social relationships between slaves and slave owners in antebellum America.


ただし、ここには挙がっていませんが、the relationship between mental and physical health(心と体の健康の関係)のように人間以外の関係について述べる場合にも用います。


用例1:The United States and Japan have had close ties since the end of World War Ⅱ.
用例2:Japan and China normalized diplomatic ties on September 29, 1972.
用例3:Japan benefits economically from strong ties to the United States.
用例4:Uruguay would like to strengthen its economic ties with Japan.
用例5:Our emotional ties with our parents are stronger and often more complex than with anyone else.






用例1:I still have strong feelings for John.
用例2:I have mixed feeling about taking that job in Los Angeles.
用例3:I have a strange feeling that I’m being watched.
用例4:Don’t let your personal feelings about coworkers get in the way of having a professional relationship with them.
用例5:I have a bad feeling about how things are going to turn out tonight.





用例1:Will Bill Clinton have conflicting emotions if both Hillary and Al Gore run in 2008?
用例2:I have mixed emotions about breaking up with Ken.
用例3:Don’t let strong emotions get in the way of relational thinking.
用例4:Cats can sense human emotion.
用例5:I can tell that some deep emotion went into this song.

「emotion」は、特に、人の置かれている状況から生じる愛情、恐怖、怒りをはじめとする「強い感情(strong feeling)」を表します。



用例1:Does that politician exploit nationalist sentiment for political gain?
用例2:Americans expressed their patriotic sentiment after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.
用例3:Both of my kids share similar sentiments about going to summer school this year.
用例4:The collective sentiment seems to be that we should not go to Pakistan for Christmas this year.
用例5:Is popular sentiment in Japan still opposed to revising article 9 of the constitution?





用例1:Have you ever become infatuated with the looks of a complete stranger?
用例2:I got a complete set of home repair tools for my birthday.
用例3:Neal showed a complete lack of respect for me during the entire meal.
用例4:After a few drinks Alberto loses complete control of himself.
用例5:I’m still trying to get a complete picture of what transpired last night.


また、2番目の用例(a complete set of tools)のように、事物を構成する部分が「完備した」という意味を表すこともあります。


用例1:The Beach Boys managed to achieve perfect harmony on “Pet Sounds.”
用例2:This would be the perfect setting for an outdoor wedding.

用例3:It’s perfect timing running into you!
用例4:My hometown is a perfect example of planned development.
用例5:My dad keeps his cars in perfect condition.


この基本的意味から、「正確な(accurate)」「質が優れている」ことを含意することもあります(perfect timing 完璧なタイミング)。


用例1:My mother believes in me with absolute certainty.
用例2:Even absolute beginners can enjoy swimming.
用例3:Rush was spewing absolute nonsense on the radio last night.
用例4:A good manager is an absolute necessity if you want to make it big.
用例5:We need you to tell us the absolute truth about what you saw yesterday.







用例1:All of my herpes symptoms have disappeared.
用例2:More jobs have disappeared during the Bush administration than any administration since Herbert Hoover.
用例3:Her smile disappeared when I told her that I’d been fired.
用例4:I watched the sun disappear over the horizon.
用例5:I can not make your health problems disappear.





用例1:Light in here tends to fade after a few hours.
用例2:Roberto’s smile faded into an empty expression.
用例3:The color on my T-shirt is faded.
用例4:The Chicago Bears’ playoff hopes are fading fast.
用例5:Memories of my childhood are fading fast.



2番目の用例のfade into…では、前置詞intoによって、smile(微笑)がempty expression(うつろな表情)へと徐々に消えて変化していくことを補足しています。


用例1:Brianna’s smile vanished when she watched her daughter fall off the deck.
用例2:The connection to my hometown has completely vanished.
用例3:Her frightened look vanished when I took off the mask.
用例4:Nick’s sense of humor vanishes when his wife is around.
用例5:The young couple vanished from their home, leaving behind cash.







用例1:Our company believes in equal opportunity regardless of race, religion or gender.
用例2:This would be a unique opportunity to visit some scenic sights in China.
用例3:This trip would be an ideal opportunity for you to work in your Spanish speaking skills.
用例4:Studying in Japan is an excellent opportunity for you to make new connections.
用例5:Spending a semester in Washington D.C. is a great opportunity for a young person like yourself.




用例1:There’s a good chance I won’t be home for Christmas this year.
用例2:The only chance I have of passing this test is finding someone smart to cheat off of.
用例3:I don’t have a realistic chance of getting accepted into Princeton.
用例4:There’s a fair chance that I won’t get accepted anywhere this fall.
用例5:This party will be a great chance to meet new people.



最初の用例のa good chanceのgoodは「十分な」という意味の数量形容詞です。

なお、2番目の用例のcheat off of…は「人、答案などをカンニングする」の意味です。


用例1:I enjoy a good cigar on the rare occasion that I have anything to celebrate.
用例2:I have been heckle during speeches on numerous occasions.
用例3:I’m saving all my money for a special occasion.
用例4:Which particular occasion are you referring to?
用例5:Funerals and weddings are the only occasions I get to see my relatives anymore.


「…の場合に、…の時に」の意味で用いる場合には、on the rare occasionのように、特定の「時」を示す前置詞onを使います。




用例1:Are you hearing voices in your head again?
用例2:Raise your arm when you hear a sound.
用例3:I swear I heard a noise in the attic last night.
用例4:Do you remember where you were when you heard the news about JFK’s assassination?
用例5:I’ve heard that story three times before.


ちなみに、I can’t hear you.は「あなたの声(話)が聞こえない」という意味になります。

(2)listen to

用例1:My dad listens to the radio when he goes to bed.
用例2:I usually listen to music when I exercise.
用例3:Let’s listen to the tape one more time.
用例4:We listened to the sound of cicadas as we fell asleep.
用例5:Listen to the story and then we’ll discuss what it means.

「listen to」は、「見る」のwatchに対応し、意識的な行為を表します。



したがって、「私の話を(よく)聞きなさい」という意味では、Listen to me.が正しく、Hear me.とは言いません。

listen to:意識的に耳を傾ける



用例1:Kayleen will be in real danger of hypothermia if she doesn’t get dry and warm soon.
用例2:We face a great danger from terrorist organizations.
用例3:There is no immediate danger of flooding in the area.
用例4:Call for help if you find yourself in obvious danger.
用例5:When did you first realize that you were in serious danger?


身近に迫っている危険(great (immediate) danger)にもそうでないものにも、また確実な危険(real (obvious) danger)にも不確かな物にも使います。


用例1:Your smoking habit puts you at an increased risk for a number of diseases.
用例2:Your current lifestyle puts you at high risk for heart disease.
用例3:I took a calculated risk and traveled through Columbia by myself.
用例4:It is a myth that the Midwest is a low risk earthquake zone.
用例5:Alan took a great risk when he moved out on his own at age 16.





用例1:Being runover is an occupational hazard for construction workers.
用例2:Fallen electric wires are a potential hazard.
用例3:The only natural hazards you need to worry about are landslides.
用例4:Do you have an environmental hazard in your home that you are unaware of?
用例5:Smoking can be a serious hazard to your health.


用例にある形容詞occupational、natural、environmentalなどと結びついて、それぞれ「業務上」「自然の力によって」「生活環境の中で」偶然に引き起こされ、なおかつ予測され得る「危険」(potential hazard)を表します。




用例1:Years of overeating and lack of exercise have damaged my health.
用例2:CFC’s damage the ozone.
用例3:Don’t do anything shameful that could damage your reputation with your students!
用例4:Massive deforestation damages the environment.
用例5:The hurricane damaged $30,000 worth of property.




用例1:I’m afraid that secondhand smoke will harm the baby.
用例2:The debate rages over whether drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge will harm the environment.
用例3:Mercury in rivers may harm fish.
用例4:The switch to alternative fuel sources will harm the interests of coal and gas companies.
用例5:Too much exposure to television can harm children.





用例1:The defense attorney injured the plaintiff with a baseball bat.
用例2:Faulty products injure thousands of people a year.
用例3:Ethan injured his ankle playing tennis.
用例4:I injured my neighbor when I threw an axe over the fence.
用例5:Audrey injured her knee roller skating.






用例1:Does Prime Minister Abe have a broad base of support in rural prefectures?
用例2:Mr. Dunkin’s class gives you a firm base of Western literature.
用例3:President Trump has a solid base of support in the South and West.
用例4:The automobile industry is the economic base of Michigan.
用例5:I had a strong base in mathematics before I entered college.





用例1:I exercise on a regular basis.
用例2:I read the paper on a daily basis.
用例3:During the season I follow the Seattle Mariners’ progress on a day-to-day basis.
用例4:I work at the hospital on a part-time basis.
用例5:Is perjury a firm basis for impeachment of a President?


on a regular (daily, day-to-day, part-time) basisの形でよく使われ、「定期的、毎日、パートタイム」という方法に基づいていることを表します。


用例1:Our team has a solid foundation for the next few years.
用例2:You need a firm foundation in general sciences before you can study.
用例3:That’s the headquarters of the National Foundation for Depressive Illness.
用例4:I would advise against building a house on a shaky foundation.
用例5:The Salvation Army is a religious foundation.




また、National Foundationやreligious foundationは、動詞found(設立する)と派生関係にある名詞として、「団体、組織」の意味で使われています。




用例1:My sister is expecting a baby any day now.
用例2:You can expect a good return on you investment as soon as this year.
用例3:I think the Chicago Cubs will do well this year but I’m not expecting a miracle.
用例4:Whenever Amanda does anything for me she expects a favor in return.
用例5:I expect an answer from you on this matter by tomorrow.



expect a baby「(臨月を迎えているので、あるいはお腹が大きくなってきたので)子供が産まれそう」、expect a miracle「(よくやったのだから)奇跡が起こることを期待する」、expect a favor「(何かしてあげたのだから)見返りを期待する」。


用例1:My mom wishes me luck before every game.
用例2:I wish you success in whatever endeavor you hope to pursue.
用例3:I wish you happiness and success in your life together.
用例4:I wish you joy in your life together.
用例5:I would never wish a person a harm.




用例1:I’m anticipating change with a new administration.
用例2:I don’t anticipate any problems in the foreseeable future.
用例3:Smart ballplayers anticipate events out on the field.
用例4:We anticipate sales in 2005 to be slightly higher than in 2004.
用例5:I don’t anticipate any difficulty in finding volunteers to work on the bake sale.





用例1:Kaleb has made a valuable contribution to our team.
用例2:My most valuable asset is my body.
用例3:Clean water is a valuable resource.
用例4:The interrogators could not get any valuable information out of the spy.
用例5:Working in the manufacturing field was a valuable experience.





用例1:Gold and silver are precious metals.
用例2:Salt was a precious substance in the Middle Ages.
用例3:My wife wants a precious stone for Christmas.
用例4:I had a precious time at the zoo with my nephew.
用例5:Our children are our most precious resource.




用例1:A healthy smile is an invaluable asset!
用例2:Computers are an invaluable tool for doing business these days.
用例3:Thanks for your invaluable help on the project.
用例4:Your work has been an invaluable source of inspiration for my art.
用例5:Teaching English in Tanzania was an invaluable experience for Mariko.







用例1:Rural parts of the country are suffering from a severe shortage of doctors.
用例2:The Midwest suffered a severe drought in 1988.
用例3:Eli suffers from severe depression.
用例4:Florida has been hit by weeks of severe weather.
用例5:Chicago has had an especially severe winter this year.



用例1:You need to take strict control of your budget.
用例2:We adhere to strict rules at Patterson Elementary School.
用例3:Todd is a vegetarian in the strict sense of the term.
用例4:The Federal government should put strict limits on the sales of arms.
用例5:Randy is not used to strict discipline.





用例1:When I started touring with the band I was not ready for the harsh reality of life on the road.
用例2:Glenn had some harsh words for Luke during the meeting.
用例3:I wouldn’t last long in a harsh climate.
用例4:My truck is in pretty harsh condition now.
用例5:Get ready for a harsh winter this year.







用例1:A strange thing happened to me on the way home from the grocery store last night.
用例2:I have a strange feelings about dating your sister.
用例3:Did you hear that strange noise?
用例4:I was at a strange place in my life when I met you.
用例5:Who’s that strange man at the door?



ちなみに、5番目の用例のa strange manは、「(今まで見たこともないほど)変な男」ですが、a strangerと言えば「(今まで見かけたことのない)見知らぬ人」の意味になります。


用例1:Faith No More’s music is a curious mixture of rap and heavy metal.
用例2:The attractive woman gave me a curious glance from across the bar.
用例3:Is it just a curious coincidence that my husband and I share the same birthday?
用例4:One curious feature of this clock is that it has a compass attached to it.
用例5:She gave me a curious look when I told her about my passion for cross-dressing.





用例1:The Electoral College is a peculiar feature of his country’s electoral system.
用例2:Playing with dolphins is a peculiar form of therapy.
用例3:I met Jessica under peculiar circumstances: I was a prisoner and she was my cell guard.
用例4:I have a peculiar feelings about learning how to use a gun.



4番目の用例peculiar feelings about learning…は、「(銃の使い方を習うことは)他にはない独特の気分」という意味を表しますが、一方、「strange」の2番目の用例strange feeling about dating…は、「(君の妹とデートすることは今まで経験したことのないほど)奇妙な気分」という意味の違いがあります。




用例1:It is my moral duty to oppose this war.
用例2:It is my legal duty to protect my client’s rights to the best of my abilities.
用例3:Mika performs her domestic duties just wonderfully.
用例4:It is my professional duty to serve my country.
用例5:I requested a special assignment but they put me on normal duty last night.





用例1:I need to fulfill my contractual obligations before I can record for another record company.
用例2:You have no legal obligation to give your ex-wife anything.
用例3:I have a moral obligation to help my fellow man.
用例4:What are Japan’s international obligations?
用例5:I have financial obligations I need to meet before I can even consider buying a new house.


同じ形容詞がdutyとobligationに用いられた場合、moral dutyは「戦争に反対すること」、legal dutyは「依頼人の権利を守ること」という、より一般性の高い義務であるのに対し、moral obligationは「私が自分の仲間を助けること」、legal obligationは「私が前妻に何かを与えること」のように、個別的な義務を表していることに注意してください。


用例1:The costs for establishing a limited liability company are lower than for a corporation.
用例2:Strict liability may apply in the case of certain manufactured products.
用例3:Pet owners have civil liability if their pets harm someone.
用例4:Who has legal liability for aviation disasters.
用例5:I need to get personal liability insurance.






用例1:Senator Kerry’s performance in the debate tonight could decide the fate of his election campaign.
用例2:You should decide the issue for yourself.
用例3:The jury unanimously decided the case in favor of the defendant.
用例4:Let’s decide matters by flipping a coin.
用例5:I feel like which college I go to will decide my future.




用例1:Investigators have yet to determine the extent to which Miles was involved in the hijacking plot.
用例2:Detroit’s ability to stop Kevin Garnett will determine the outcome of the game.
用例3:You need to determine your priorities before you can move to.
用例4:I’m trying to determine what level of English class would be right for me.
用例5:How can you determine the amount of mercury in water?






用例1:Let’s fix a date for the wedding right now!
用例2:I’m convinced that gasoline companies are fixing their prices.
用例3:The marching band members fixed their positions and waited for the drum major’s signal.
用例4:I’m fixing up my place for the party.
用例5:The court fixed the amount of bail to be given at $10,000.






用例1:My take-home pay last year was $56,000.
用例2:Women should get equal pay for equal work.
用例3:I’m tired of working a low pay job with no benefits.
用例4:My wife gets maternal leave for a year with full pay.
用例5:Basic pay starts at $7.50 an hour.




用例1:Public school teachers in the United States make an annual salary of $44,367.
用例2:We pay our employees a basic salary without any bonuses.
用例3:How much is your monthly salary?
用例4:$100,000 a year is a high salary for a basketball coach!
用例5:I have a low salary but I get to watch a lot of baseball games.




用例1:The current minimum wage is $5.15 an hour.
用例2:Real wages in the manufacturing industry have declined for three years in a row.
用例3:Low wages keep profits for the company high.
用例4:The average hourly wage at 15 Chinese factories was $0.23.
用例5:High wages in the IT sector were pretty common in the late 1990’s.






用例1:Gavin has a bad fear of birds.
用例2:I have a real fear that my company will fire me.
用例3:There is a widespread fear of a terrorist attack in the near future.
用例4:One day I will overcome my great fear of public speaking.
用例5:Melinda suffers from a deep fear of public performing.





用例1:Susan recoiled in mock horror as I took my undershirt off.
用例2:I cannot comprehend the full horror of what you must have gone through that night.
用例3:Paula watched the picture with fascinated horror.
用例4:I can’t imagine the sheer horror that went through her mind before they beheaded her.
用例5:He spoke of his absolute horror at the tsunami.






用例1:I was gripped by sheer terror as the roller coaster started its descent.
用例2:I cannot imagine the pure terror of warfare.
用例3:Greta recalled the absolute terror of the air raids.
用例4:My two year-old is a holy terror.
用例5:A flash of sudden terror overcame Malcolm when he heard the pilot announce they would be experiencing turbulence.




ちなみに、a holy terrorとは口語表現で、手に負えないものを指し、「厄介者」「きかん坊」などの意味で使います。




用例1:I went into the real estate business to make a huge amount of money.
用例2:LeBron James got a huge sum of money to play for the Cleveland Cavaliers.
用例3:A huge crowd showed up to listen to the mayor speak.
用例4:I drank a huge quantity of beer and then threw up.
用例5:The Democrats are planning a huge increase in taxes.





用例1:An enormous amount of effort went into making this book.
用例2:Sophie has enormous potential to become famous.
用例3:I’ve been under enormous pressure at work lately.
用例4:My dream is to win an enormous sum of money in the lottery.
用例5:Andrew and Chris ate an enormous quantity of meat last night.




用例1:Dale made an immense amount of money in the stock market.
用例2:Getting a good education is of immense importance.
用例3:Mr. Quinn places an immense value on punctuality.
用例4:I have immense difficulty understanding what’s going on in class.
用例5:Stalin wielded immense power during his reign.


いずれの類語でも用例にamountがトップにきていますが、huge amount of moneyは「金額の桁が非常に大きいこと」、enormous amount of effortは「努力の程度が並外れて大きいこと」、immense amount of moneyは「金額が計り知れないほど大きいこと」をそれぞれ表していて、enormousやimmenseの方がhugeより意味合いとしては強くなります。




用例1:Let’s figure out some ways we can cut costs.
用例2:I use earplugs when I cut the grass.
用例3:Wal-Mart is cutting prices for you!
用例4:Fred took less than fifteen minutes to cut my hair.
用例5:We are going to have to cut some specialist jobs in the engineering department.




用例1:I use this special knife to chop parsley.
用例2:I love going out in the fresh winter air and chopping wood.
用例3:Chopping onions makes me cry.
用例4:I’m a logger, which means that I chop trees down for a living.
用例5:Who wants to chop the head off the turkey?




用例1:Could you trim the edge off that bush?
用例2:The barber meticulously trimmed the end of my beard.
用例3:We are looking for ways to trim costs in production.
用例4:It’s my job to trim the grass during the summer.
用例5:Members of the House Appropriations Committee are looking for ways to trim the budget.







用例1:The government banned fox hunting in England.
用例2:I’m glad that they banned advertising in State parks.
用例3:Japan has decided to ban the import of US beef.
用例4:A new law will ban the use of cell-phones while driving.
用例5:Isn’t it a violation of the first amendment for the government to ban the sale of obscene music?



用例1:Why does the Catholic Church prohibit the use of birth control?
用例2:Our church has prohibited the practice of wearing bandanas during games.
用例3:Why don’t they prohibit the sale of alcohol in vending machines.
用例4:The United States prohibits the import of products from Cuba.
用例5:Federal law prohibits the employment of illegal immigrants.




用例1:Federal law forbids the use of snowmobiles in National Parks.
用例2:Our school rules forbid the wearing of head scarves.
用例3:Our state forbids the granting of scholarships to students with criminal records.
用例4:My church forbids the celebration of Halloween because it originated as a pagan ritual.
用例5:This club forbids the admission to anyone under 21.






用例1:Check out this herbal medicine I got at the drug store the other day.
用例2:I prefer liquid medicine over powered medicine.
用例3:I can’t drink any alcohol when I’m on prescribed medicine.
用例4:This stuff is bitter medicine but it really does the job.
用例5:Over-the counter medicine is often cheaper than what the doctor gives you.




用例1:Illegal drug use is on the rise among adolescents.
用例2:Take these prescribed drugs and tell me how you feel in the morning.
用例3:Illicit drug use is rampant on the streets of Bangkok.
用例4:Alcohol is an addictive drug.
用例5:Cocaine is a dangerous drug.




用例1:How do we know that there are no toxic chemicals in our groundwater?
用例2:I’m worried about contamination of synthetic chemicals in my food source.
用例3:Organic chemicals are widely used as ingredients in household products.
用例4:I’m concerned about poisonous chemicals in our water supply.
用例5:Regulations require us to wear skin protection and masks when handling dangerous chemicals.

「chemical」が「化学薬品」という名詞で使われるときは、その種類を表す形容詞(toxic, poisonous有毒な、dangerous危険な、synthetic合成の、organic有機の)が多く用いられます。




用例1:South Korea is a developed country with a thriving economy.
用例2:Is China still a developing country?
用例3:Spain is my favorite European country.
用例4:Western countries are united by a common civilization.






用例1:Japan has been an industrialized nation for well over a hundred years.
用例2:The developed nations of the world have a responsibility to help other nations out of poverty.
用例3:European nations are wary of US unilateralism.
用例4:Bangladesh is a developing nation.



用例1:Estonia has been an independent state since 1991.
用例2:Contracting States to this treaty are obliged to follow its provisions regarding output of greenhouse gases.
用例3:Invading a sovereign state violates international law.
用例4:Micronesia is comprised of group of federated states.
用例5:The British unitary state arose on the subjection by military force of the Scots, Welsh and the Irish.






用例1:We usually do a few simple fielding drills before batting practice starts.
用例2:Military drills during the week start at 6 am sharp.
用例3:As a paramedic in training, I had to go through numerous life-saving drills.
用例4:Research shows that repetitive drills are an effective way to memorize information.
用例5:Grammatical drills in class don’t keep student’s attention for very long.


a fire drill(避難訓練)がそのよい例です。



用例1:I do thirty minutes of aerobic exercise every morning.
用例2:Regular exercise is the key to being in shape.
用例3:Military exercises are good for discipline and morale.
用例4:I play squash for physical exercise.
用例5:Walking is the most practical exercise there is.





用例1:My sister went to an elite prep school but I opted for vocational training instead.
用例2:Formal training can help develop your talents.
用例3:Basic training was the toughest part of my military training.
用例4:Professional voice training is required if you want to be a professional singer.
用例5:Military training might give your boy some much needed discipline.







用例1:Have you been involved in any ambitious projects lately?
用例2:I am involved in a major research project now.
用例3:Our company is working on a joint project with a Japanese firm.
用例4:I need a specific project to focus my energies on.




用例1:What are your ambitious plans for after you graduate from college.
用例2:Our company needs a strategic plan to increase sales.
用例3:We are looking at a local plan to build another bridge across the bay.
用例4:Let’s put together a detailed plan for our trip.



用例1:Our school has implemented several innovative educational programs in recent years.
用例2:UN Weapons Inspectors suspect that Iran has a nuclear program.
用例3:My personal trainer put me on an ambitious program to whip me into shape.
用例4:Neveda’s State Treasurer announced a new economic program for 2019.



用例1:I’m confused about choosing an occupational pension scheme.
用例2:My company’s profit-sharing scheme pays employees for loyalty and performance.
用例3:Let’s come up with a new scheme that might work better than the old one.
用例4:Dan and John have hatched an ambitious scheme to take over the world by age thirty.






用例1:Experts predict that oil prices will continue their downward trend through the fall.
用例2:IT salaries in India show an upward trend.
用例3:The current trend of digital photography makes photography easier than ever.
用例4:Getting a “life coach” is a growing trend in the United States.
用例5:Going into the election, economic trend do not bode well for the Republicans.






用例1:There’s a growing tendency to criticize the government in Cuba.
用例2:Dogs have a natural tendency to sniff anything that moves.
用例3:Merle has a strong tendency to criticize things without doing anything productive himself.
用例4:Delila has a marked tendency to blurt out inappropriate things.
用例5:Anthony has a general tendency to look on the bright side.





用例1:People have a natural inclination to seek power.
用例2:Gavin has a slight inclination to stick his nose in other people’s business.
用例3:My personal inclination when I’m gambling is to quit when I’m ahead.
用例4:I suspect that George has romantic inclinations toward Lauren.






用例1:Jeremy’s injury was a direct result of putting too much weight on his knee.
用例2:Eugene got positive results from his workout regime.
用例3:I don’t think we can trust these experimental results.
用例4:What was the final result of your exam?






用例1:President Trump’s policies are having an adverse effect on the environment.
用例2:It looks like the cumulative effect of your lifestyle has finally caught up with your body.
用例3:The literature of J.D. Salinger had a profound effect on me growing up.
用例4:I’ve heard that consumption of omega-3 fatty acids can have a beneficial effect on mental health.
用例5:My increased vocabulary is a direct effect of reading more.





用例1:Increased unemployment is an inevitable consequence of IMF policies.
用例2:Being a smoker had disastrous consequences on Michio’s body.
用例3:I did not realize the adverse consequences of eating fast food every day.
用例4:There will be serious consequences for you if you don’t turn in your homework.








用例1:Vigorous exercise is good for the body and mind.
用例2:Senator Kerry ran a vigorous campaign but still narrowly lost the election.
用例3:The two candidates engaged in a vigorous debate about domestic and foreign policy issues.
用例4:I’m excited about vigorous growth in the electronics industry.
用例5:Sometimes vigorous action is the only answer to life’s challenges.






用例1:Melinda always has a cheerful smile.
用例2:Hey Anita, was that your cheerful voice on my answering machine?
用例3:Remember to greet the guests in a cheerful manner.
用例4:This pub has a more cheerful atmosphere than that other one we went to.
用例5:Nothing makes me happier than seeing my wife’s cheerful face in the morning.




用例1:Candidate Kucinich gave a spirited defense of gay marriage in his speech.
用例2:The audience was moved by the spirited performance of the young Romanian gymnast.
用例3:The leftist guerrillas put up a spirited resistance but were eventually defeated by the government forces.
用例4:John Lennon’s high school friends remember him as a spirited teenager.
用例5:I have never met a woman as spirited as Emily.







用例1:It is important to develop healthy eating habits early in life.
用例2:The Japanese are known for having healthy diets but lately I don’t think so.
用例3:Sometimes it’s hard to lead a healthy lifestyle in the city.
用例4:After eating fast food all day I’m really craving healthy food.
用例5:My wife and I just had a healthy baby boy.


人を健康に保つための物(eating, food食べ物、diet食事、lifestyle生活様式)などを修飾します。



用例1:My older brother Ron had sound advice for me when I entered college.
用例2:There is a sound basis behind the success of the startup company.
用例3:Do you have a sound reason for changing your major from business to art?
用例4:It is sound practice to require users to input their usernames and passwords to access their private information.
用例5:You need to have a sound mind and a healthy body to be a professional musician.




用例1:I’d like to eat some god wholesome food.
用例2:My son does not seek out wholesome images on the Internet.
用例3:Playing in a marching band is good wholesome fun.
用例4:I love the wholesome odor that fills the house when mom makes bread.







用例1:We’re going to have to carry out a detailed examination of how we got this point.
用例2:The exhaustive medical examination lasted almost five hours.
用例3:A close examination of the side panel showed that it was in fact slightly warped.
用例4:Mr. Moore usually has two written examinations in his class.


ですから、その慎重さや丁寧さを表す形容詞(detailed, close詳細な、careful注意深い)がよく用いられます。



用例1:I have been following the public inquiry by Lord Hutton investigating the circumstances surrounding the death of Dr. David Kelly.
用例2:A judicial inquiry in Alabama began today concerning one of its supreme court justices.
用例3:Try to avoid any fatal inquiries while you are gathering news in Afghanistan.
用例4:Kenneth Starr’s independent inquiry into the Clinton’s real estate deals cost taxpayers thousands of dollars.




用例1:I asked the mechanic for a close inspection of my car engine.
用例2:Thorough nuclear inspection are held annually at the plant.
用例3:You should have regular inspections done on your car.
用例4:We are demanding a public inspection of his nuclear plant!







用例1:There’s nothing I cherish more than the sinking hearts of New York Yankees fans.
用例2:Well bless your scared heart for helping me across the street!
用例3:Frank has had a broken heart since Louanne left him for another man.
用例4:I’ve had a heavy heart since hearing about Shirley’s death.



用例1:Abrielle has an open mind about most things.
用例2:Open up your unconscious mind to the powers of the imagination.
用例3:Where does our conscious mind come from?
用例4:Zoe and I have like minds when it comes to men.



用例1:The Trinity is Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
用例2:Janice is convinced that evil spirit haunt this house.
用例3:Jack and Jill have been kindred spirits since they went up the hill.
用例4:Claire was in high spirits after winning her first marathon.






用例1:I believe that humans have an immortal soul.
用例2:Let that poor soul inside and give him something to eat.
用例3:Jerry was a lost soul until he met Maya.
用例4:The world of politics is too harsh for such a sensitive soul.

「soul」は、本来、肉体に対する「魂」を意味し、そこから魂の具現たる人そのもの(poor soul、sensitive soul)を指す場合にも使われます。





用例1:I’m going to try my luck at the craps table.
用例2:Try that thing on and see how it looks.
用例3:One of these days I’d like to try my hand at golf.
用例4:Now we are going to try an experiment involving sulfuric acid, ketchup and mice.
用例5:Let’s try a less capitulating approach in negotiations next time.




用例1:Shane attempted suicide with a razor blade.
用例2:We attempted a rescue but could not save the little girl.
用例3:I took a deep breath before attempting the daunting task of cleaning my apartment.
用例4:I did not even attempt a smile when I made eye contact with Noriko.
用例5:Who would like to attempt analysis of this year’s election?


suicide、rescue、taskなどは一般的な意味でも、明らかに大きな努力を要することがわかりますが、そうでない場合でも文脈上大きな努力が伴う場合には、attempt a smileのように使われます。


用例1:The young researcher could not wait to test his hypothesis.
用例2:The FDA (Food and Drug Administration) is testing the strength of this medicine.
用例3:Scientists like to test their theories on rats.
用例4:This test is designed to test your cognitive ability.
用例5:We will test this well water before we drink it.






用例1:Answer the question before I break your neck!
用例2:Just answer the query as best as you can.
用例3:Could somebody answer the phone?
用例4:Answer calls for me when I’m away.
用例5:Hey Mike, could you answer the door?





用例1:I try to reply to letters within a week.
用例2:I replied to their debate by shrugging my shoulders.
用例3:The President replied to questions from the audience.
用例4:Please reply to the questionnaire and put it in the box.
用例5:The Senator replied to charges that he had evaded paying income taxes for years.





用例1:Emergency workers must respond to calls immediately.
用例2:The D.J. never responds to requests so why bother calling him?
用例3:Emma is responding to treatment really well.
用例4:Our job at Franklin Hospital is to respond to patient’s needs as best as we can.
用例5:Mattel is responding to strong demand for its action figures by increasing production.




3番目の用例のtreatmentは「治療」の意味で、respond to treatmentで「治療の効き目が現れる」(治療に好反応を示す)の意味で使われます。




用例1:I was refused permission to the bar because I didn’t have an ID with me.
用例2:Bethany refused my offer, again.
用例3:This club refused entry if you don’t have an ID card.
用例4:I refused Wendy’s invitation to her birthday party because I know Alicia will be there.
用例5:They refused my request for a free refill of coffee.





用例1:The city council rejected our proposal to build a carillon tower in the park.
用例2:Let’s reject the idea that we can’t do any better.
用例3:Steve Young rejected the initial offer that the San Francisco 49ers gave him.
用例4:I rejected my sister’s suggestion to rewrite the essay.
用例5:I reject your argument because it is not based on sound reasoning.





用例1:I declined her offer to drive me home.
用例2:I respectfully decline your dinner invitation.
用例3:The International Criminal Court declines jurisdiction in this matter.
用例4:Michael Jackson declined an interview from CBS.
用例5:Jaden declined nomination to become president of the PTA.






用例1:Jesus Christ preached that killing people is a sin.
用例2:I was eighteen when I killed my first soldier.
用例3:Jack Owens is accused of killing his wife.
用例4:It’s OK to kill animals for food.
用例5:I first killed a bird when I was ten years old.




用例にはありませんが、kill time(暇つぶしをする)という表現も覚えておきましょう。


用例1:Scott Peterson is on trial for murdering his wife.
用例2:I had to take my sheets to the drycleaners after murdering my husband in bed.
用例3:What kind of a creep would murder his mother?
用例4:The Oedipus Complex is when you have an unconscious wish to murder your father and sleep with your mother.
用例5:Dan Wilson is in jail for murdering his parents.





用例1:Our machines can slaughter a flock of birds instantly.
用例2:I could never bring myself to slaughter an animal.
用例3:Machines are the most efficient way to slaughter chickens.
用例4:Let me give you a tour of the slaughterhouse where we slaughter sheep.
用例5:The terrorists ruthlessly slaughtered dozens of children.









用例1:I do not have a vague notion of where my parents keep anything in this house.
用例2:Do you even have a vague idea of where we are?
用例3:Sandra had an annoying habit of making vague promises.
用例4:I’m under the vague impression that Malcolm doesn’t like me at all.
用例5:I have a vague concept of how to put this thing together.


抽象的な概念を表す語(notion, idea, concept(概念)、impression(印象))やpromise(約束)などとともに使われます。


用例1:Politicians intentionally use ambiguous words in their speeches so they won’t be held accountable for taking a stand on an issue.
用例2:Terrel’s ambiguous status at work made him uneasy.
用例3:Ralph had anambiguous position on nearly every major issue.
用例4:The ambiguous terms of this contract make me rather nervous.
用例5:Don’t you think “compassionate conservative” has an ambiguous meaning?


ですから、たくさんの意味や解釈を持つことができる言葉(word, term, meaning)や、人の立場(status, position)と強く結びつきます。


用例1:I am unfamiliar with the obscure origins of the game croquet.
用例2:My father is visiting Latvia for someobscure reason.
用例3:Kevin’s dream was to become an academic and write for anobscure journal.
用例4:Matt has an obscure sense of humor.







用例1:A brush about this big should fit the bill perfectly for what we need.
用例2:I’m looking for a key that fits this lock.
用例3:The profile that the police read fit the description of my assailant.
用例4:Greg fits the category of a strong leader.
用例5:Lucia’s mood swings fit the pattern of manic depressive.



ちなみに、fit the billで「条件を満たす」という意味になります。


用例1:As a politician, your policies must match the needs of your constituency.
用例2:I like to match the color of my pants to my tie.
用例3:I put on music that matches my mood.
用例4:Her experience does not match the requirement that we are looking for at Wal-Mart
用例5:The other wide receiver tried to match Jerry Rice’s patterns.





用例1:This electronic dictionary suits my needs.
用例2:I found a nice Italian restaurant that will suit your fancy tastes.
用例3:My experience suits the requirement for this job.
用例4:I found the perfect tool to suit my purpose.
用例5:That hat totally suits your style.







用例1:Lack of exposure to bright light in the winter results in seasonal affected disorder (SAD) for some people.
用例2:Bright colors match Yuko’s cheerful personality.
用例3:I don’t look good in bright red because it accentuates my zits.
用例4:Bright sunlight in Alex’s eyes prevented him from seeing the deer in the road.
用例5:I love the feeling of bright sunshine on my face.


ですから、光そのもの(light(光)、sunlight, sunshine(日差し))の明るさを形容します。



用例1:Light green and yellow are the only two colors I used in this painting.
用例2:I wear light colors when I’m riding my bike at night.
用例3:My sister has light hair, especially in the summer.
用例4:I’m thinking about dyeing my hair a lighter tone.



用例1:How long can Anne hold that cheerful smile before her face cracks?
用例2:There’s nothing like the sound of Kristie’s cheerful voice on the other end of the phone!
用例3:I opened my cheap Christmas presents in a mockingly cheerful manner.
用例4:I love Irish pubs for their cheerful atmosphere.
用例5:Tess has a cheerful face, even in the morning.






用例1:Your recent weight gain is a clear indication that you need to change your diet and get more exercise.
用例2:Charlie can’t seem to make a clear distinction between right and wrong.
用例3:I still don’t have a clear understanding of why I’m here.
用例4:There is no clear evidence that this man is guilty of the crimes which he is accused of.
用例5:The pentagon has yet to issue a clear statement about the incident.




用例1:Their plane crashed due to an apparent lack of fuel.
用例2:”Fighting to secure the peace” sounds like an apparent contradiction to me.
用例3:There is an apparent paradox between being Christian and anti-Semitic.
用例4:I decided to work at a gas station for no apparent reason.
用例5:There’s an apparent discrepancy between what the company owes me and what actually got.


しかし、明らかな矛盾(contradiction, paradox, discrepancy)や、明らかな理由(reason)を表す場合には用いられます。



用例1:My mom took up golf at age fifty for no obvious reason.
用例2:An apple falling from a tree is an obvious example of gravity.
用例3:Herald Kearnes is the obvious choice to lead this company into the 21st century.
用例4:The Englishman enjoyed an obvious advantage over the Taiwanese in the English debate.






用例1:Just put this packet of curry in hot water.
用例2:It’s been a hot summer in Louisiana so far.
用例3:I have trouble breathing the hot air in saunas.
用例4:We’ve had unusually hot weather in Minneapolis this summer.
用例5:Jiro takes a hot bath every night before he goes to bed.





用例1:The crowd gave President Carter a warm welcome.
用例2:Let’s take advantage of the warm weather and ride our bikes today.
用例3:When I was a kid my mom used to put warm water in a water bottle to keep me warm.
用例4:Warm air rises, so stay low if you’re hot.
用例5:I’m going to move to a warm climate when I retire.





用例1:I enjoy living in a more temperate climate.
用例2:This species of plant flourishes in temperate latitudes.
用例3:The temperate region where I live has four distinct seasons.
用例4:What effect will global warming have on plants and animals in the temperate zone?
用例5:This temperate forest has many deciduous trees that change color in the fall.


ですから、気候(climate)や、地域を示す語(latitude, region(地方)、zone(地帯)、forest(林))などと共に用いられます。


⑥ 集める


用例1:Hi, we are collecting signatures for a petition to ban the sale of semi-automatic rifles.
用例2:Tyronne is collecting data on fruit flies for his genetics experiment.
用例3:I’m collecting information from the Internet for my research project.
用例4:My church went to the station to collect money for Tokyo earthquake victims.
用例5:Collecting taxes must be a tough job.




用例1:The Falcons are gathering momentum as the playoffs approach.
用例2:Give me a second to gather my wits before I go up on stage.
用例3:As a CIA agent I am trained to gather information discreetly.
用例4:The insurgency in Iraq seems to be gathering strength.
用例5:Will government reforms in Japan ever gather pace?


精神的で抽象的なもの(momentum, strength(勢い)、wit(心)、information(情報))などを目的語として多く用います。


用例1:I am confident that we will assemble an excellent team of engineers to make this project a success.
用例2:Chip has assembled a nice collection of concert T-shirts over the years.
用例3:It took me a few days to assemble the components of this motorcycle.
用例4:I am currently assembling information related to my research project.
用例5:Occupation authorities are trying to assemble an Iraqi army.






用例1:Alcohol is a dangerous substance if taken in large quantities.
用例2:Invading another country just because it has the capability to attack us sets a dangerous precedent.
用例3:I got myself into a dangerous situation down at the club last night when I started dancing with someone else’s girl.
用例4:Heroin is the most dangerous drug readily available on the streets of London.
用例5;High yield investments are a dangerous game to play.




用例1:The hikers found themselves in a risky situation when they tried to take a shortcut but got lost.
用例2:Doing research on right-wing nationalists is risky business.
用例3:Putting that much money into real estate sure seems like a risky venture to me.
用例4:I try to stay away from risky investments.
用例5:Rock climbing is one of several risky activities that Andy does for fun.




用例1:Hazardous waste should be handled in a way that does not poison the environment.
用例2:Hazardous chemicals should be legally disposed of.
用例3:This factory produces several kinds of hazardous substances.
用例4:We do not let just anyone handle our hazardous materials.


特に、物質(waste(廃棄物)、chemical(化学製品)、substance, material(物質))などが有害であることを提示するときに使います。





用例1:I met Karen under suspicious circumstances when she was a political activist in Mexico.
用例2:Alex wondered whether jack had suspicious motives for joining the CIA.
用例3:The clerk gave me a suspicious look when I walked in the door.
用例4:You cannot prosecute someone for having a suspicious mind.
用例5:A suspicious character carrying a squirt gun was reported outside of 7-11 last night at around 3 am.




用例1:The bar owner could tell that Aaron’s driver’s license was of doubtful validity.
用例2:I suspected that his ID is of doubtful authenticity.
用例3:This vase is supposed to be authentic but I think it’s authentic but I think it’s of doubtful value.
用例4:This painting looks like an authentic Picasso but art appraisers say it is of doubtful origin.
用例5:Something about this $100 bill tells me that it’s of doubtful quality.




用例1:Chad got the dubious honor of “class airhead.”
用例2:Warren Moon has the dubious distinction of setting the NFL record for fumbles in a career.
用例3:This contract is of dubious legality.
用例4:I had the dubious pleasure of interviewing a celebrity from jail.






用例1:John changes his mind more than most people change their underwear.
用例2:I hate it when Maki changes the subject during a conversation.
用例3:Lars changed his name from Chris to Lars when he was four years old.
用例4:Brad needs to change his attitude if he wants to stay in the band.
用例5:Chameleons change color according to their surroundings.




用例1:Getting a bike has improved the quality of my life considerably.
用例2:I find that making a “to do” list for the day really improves my efficiency.
用例3:We are always looking for ways to improve the performance of our Olympic athletes.
用例4:How can we improve standards in school?
用例5:We improved productivity in the factory by increasing the number of loading forklifts.




用例1:We convinced management to revise its opinion on cutting employee’s wages.
用例2:The insurance company revised its estimate after taking a look at the wrecked car.
用例3:Some Japanese people are apathetic to the debate over whether to revise the Japanese constitution.
用例4:Enron had to revise its accounts after its accounting scandal.






用例1:The rats exhibited abnormal behavior after consuming cocaine.
用例2:The doctor told me that I was born with an abnormal liver.
用例3:What are the causes of abnormal bladder function?
用例4:I got abnormal results on my blood test.
用例5:I’m upset by your seemingly abnormal pattern of behavior.





用例1:The most unusual feature of this guitar is that it has seven strings.
用例2:Jerry took the unusual step of his taking his depressed dog to a dog counselor.
用例3:Let me explain the unusual circumstances in which I met my wife.
用例4:Wine and cereal sounds like an unusual lunch combination to me.
用例5:Wayne Dwop took pride in his unusual name.





用例1:Winning the Tour de France six times in a row is an extraordinary achievement!
用例2:One of the extraordinary things about Tokyo is that it has rebuilt itself after several devastating disaster.
用例3:He showed an extraordinary degree of poise throughout trial.
用例4:I was moved by Jessica’s extraordinary story of bravery in battle.
用例5:Matt has extraordinary talent for languages.






用例1:Let me show you the usual methods of drumming before showing you some unorthodox techniques.
用例2:Frank is evidently back to his usual self.
用例3:The usual manner of cleaning out a pumpkin is using a serrated spoon.
用例4:The usual way to hold a cigarette is between your index finger and middle finger.
用例5:Wearing veils is still usual practice for Iranian women.




用例1:The recognition of Aboriginal customary laws is a step toward respecting their culture.
用例2:It is customary practice for the oldest son’s wife to take care of her mother-in-law.
用例3:The Makah Indians have a customary right to this land.
用例4:In Japan bowing is the customary manner of greeting people.
用例5:Allow me to start in the customary way.



用例1:It looks like some raccoons have taken up habitual residence in our garage.
用例2:Leon has been a habitual criminal ever since his first crime as a teenager.
用例3:Carl has been a habitual drinker since adolescence.
用例4:Suzuki is a habitual offender with a criminal record.
用例5:The chiropractor pointed out that my habitual way of sitting was bad for my health.





用例1:I prefer to wear plain clothes, even to nice restaurants.
用例2:The undercover officer wore civilian clothes on assignment.
用例3:I always wear casual clothes at home.
用例4:I have a big pile of dirty clothes in the corner of my room.
用例5:I don’t have any clean clothes to wear to school.




用例1:Hannah looked so good in that fancy dress.
用例2:Veronica looks hot in that black dress.
用例3:Honey, I can’t find my favorite blue dress.
用例4:Jennifer spilled red wine on her white dress.
用例5:Where did you get such a pretty dress?




用例1:Construction workers wear protective clothing so they won’t get hurt.
用例2:Make sure to take outdoor clothing with you on the hike.
用例3:I should have brought some warm clothing with me.
用例4:Food preparation workers should pay attention to the cleanliness of their outer clothing.
用例5:Do you think I’ll need waterproof clothing for the trip?




数える場合は、a piece (an item, an article) of clothingのように表します。

特に、ある特定の種類の「服、服装」(protective (waterproof) clothing)を表す場合や、帽子や手袋などの小物類や装備品一式を含む場合に使います。




用例1:When I say that I’ve made sacrifices, I’m talking about the literal meaning.
用例2:What is the precise meaning of the word “secular?”
用例3:Ceremonies performed by the Imperial House-hold Agency have a largely symbolic meaning.
用例4:Lexical meaning is the meaning of a word that depends on the nonlinguistic concepts it is used to express.
用例5:The word “liberal” has a different meaning in the US than it does in the UK.




用例1:There is no statistical significance to Bush’s lead in the polls.
用例2:His visit to Yasukuni shrine is of great symbolic significance.
用例3:There is great significance to tonight’s Presidential debate.
用例4:There is particular significance in Mr. Tanaka’s gain in support from married women.
用例5:I think there’s a special significance to Wilbur’s decision to become a vegetarian.



用例1:Do you believe in heaven and hell in a literal sense?
用例2:Ron isn’t a “collector” in the strict sense of the word but he has a few nice paintings.
用例3:In a broader sense, this tragedy has brought people all over the world closer together.
用例4:I was never scared in the real sense of the term but I certainly was nervous before the show.


the sense of this wordは、この単語の字義通りの(辞書に載っている)意味の1つを表します。

これに対して、the meaning of his wordsと言えば、彼が言わんとしていることを指し、言葉の裏の意味や行間に込められた意味のことを表します。




用例1:The story hit the headlines as soon as it before.
用例2:Try to hit the ball to leftfield.
用例3:Reggie Miller hit a shot with one second left to win the game.
用例4:The simple object of this game is to hit the target as many times as you can.
用例5:I hit the ground as soon as I heard gunshots.


また、hit the groundは口語的表現で、「(危険を避けるために)地面に伏せる」という意味を表します。


用例1:Mom beat eggs with a fork while I set the table.
用例2:Beat the drum as hard as you can.
用例3:Ichiro beat George Sisler’s record for hits in a single season.
用例4:Reporters are beating a path to Brad Pitt’s door.
用例5:The caged canaries beat their wings in vain.





用例1:Howard Dean’s anti-war message struck a chord with many people in the Democratic party.
用例2:Allegations of an extra-marital affair struck a blow to Michael’s mayoral campaign.
用例3:I’m still trying to strike a balance between work and play.
用例4:Strike a cute pose and I’ll take your picture.
用例5:I’ll strike a bargain with you on a brand new Chevrolet.


しかし、名詞と結びついて、strike a chordは「相手のchord(弦)を打ち鳴らす」から「共鳴させる」の意味で「共感を得る」、strike a blowは「(相手に)打撃を与える」、strike a balanceは「(両者の)バランスをとる、両立させる」、strike a poseは「ポーズをとる」、strike a bargainは「手を打つ、取引する」など、様々な表現でも用いられます。




用例1:The prosecutor is accusing Scott Peterson of murdering his wife.
用例2:A city council member is accusing the mayor of corruption.
用例3:Senator Barr was accused of involvement with a racist organization.
用例4:I have been accused of a crime that I did not commit!
用例5:My ex-husband accused me of an assault on his well-being.




用例1:Richard Perle’s lawyers advised him not to sue for liberal.
用例2:I’m suing the airline for damages from the food poisoning I got from the airplane food.

用例3:Who do you sue for defamation on the web?
用例4:The family of a Detroit girl who was raped is suing the school for negligence in failing to protect her.
用例5:Contractors sued the construction company for breach of contract.





用例1:We are prosecuting the defendant for the offense of plagiarism.
用例2:Does the first amendment prevent us from prosecuting artists for obscenity?
用例3:This court prosecutes you, Jason Reeves, for theft of public property.
用例4:I wish I could prosecute my neighbor for cruelty to animals.
用例5:Will the International Criminal Court prosecute Saddam Hussein for his crimes?






用例1:A run of bad luck left Chester divorced and unemployed.
用例2:Good luck with all those papers you need to write in the next few days!
用例3:It was sheer luck that I ran into my brother downtown last night.
用例4:Deron had a string of hard luck when he lost his job and his wife left him.
用例5:Last week I had a run of rotten luck when I lost my car keys one day and my wallet a few days later.

「luck」は、良い意味にも悪い意味にも使う場合(bad luck、good luck)と、「幸運」の意味で使う場合があります。



用例1:There’s a good chance that I won’t be coming home for Christmas this year.
用例2:There’s little chance that I’ll get to play in the game today.
用例3:Tonight is the only chance I have to see her before I leave.
用例4:She doesn’t have a realistic chance of winning the election.
用例5:There’s a fair chance that I won’t be making it to your school play.


また、単なる「可能性」(good chance)の意味でも使います。


用例1:We had the good fortune to meet in our local church over thirty years ago.
用例2:I had the ill fortune of running into my ex-wife at the opera last weekend.
用例3:Randolph made a bloody fortune from his investments in weapon manufacturing companies.
用例4:My grandfather made a great fortune as a media entrepreneur in the 1930’s and 1940’s.


また、make a fortune(財を成す)のように、「財産」の意味でも使います。




用例1:How dare you question the eternal verity of the old testament!
用例2:Eternal life is god’s gift to man according to the gospels.
用例3:For centuries human beings have been looking for the secret to eternal youth.
用例4:People call Rome the eternal city.
用例5:I have faith in the eternal love of God.


ですから、eternal verity (life)などのように普遍的なものや、eternal youth (city、love)のように終わりがなく、永遠に存在するものを表します。


用例1:If we accept the gospel of Jesus Christ we can have everlasting life.
用例2:There’s nothing like the everlasting love of a mother.
用例3:I hope that death gives my troubled friend everlasting peace.
用例4:I wish the two of you everlasting happiness.
用例5:My last trip to the opera with dad became an everlasting memory.

「everlasting」は、lasting forever(永遠に続く)という意味です。




用例1:Cynthia has been our permanent secretary since 1994.
用例2:If we cut the trees down here this place will become a permanent grassland.
用例3:This area became permanent pasture after some of the grass grew back after the forest fire.
用例4:Sorry, we aren’t hiring any permanent staff at the moment.
用例5:Japan wants to become a permanent member of the UN Security Council.







用例1:I try to choose a moment every day to sit down and meditate.
用例2:Let’s choose a route that will get us there the fastest.
用例3:Choose an option that suits your needs.
用例4:Choose a word that begins with the letter “W.”
用例5:Choose a subject that your students would be interested in discussing.



用例1:Select an option that suits your family‘s vacation needs.
用例2:I have faith in the American people to select a candidate who is up to the task of leading our country.
用例3:It’s hard to select a remedy with so many options.
用例4:The first thing you need to do is select a module for a computer.
用例5:How do we go about selecting a sample of people for the survey?



choose an option…は、選択肢の中(ニーズに合うと思われるもの)どれか1つに決めるという行為を表し、その結果(選ばれたもの)が強調されます。

select an option…は、選択肢の中のどれが最も要望に合うかを吟味して選ぶという行為を表し、その結果と同様に選択の過程(選択作業)が重要な意味を持ちます。


用例1:The American people elect a president every four years.
用例2:Tomorrow Kosovans will elect a parliament.
用例3:We needed to elect the members of the Board of Directors at that meeting.
用例4:The Ukrainian people have had trouble electing a leader.
用例5:We elect state representatives every two years.






用例1:We followed the path along the river bank.
用例2:It was hard to follow the lead of the conductor from where I was sitting in the back row of the orchestra.
用例3:The criminal seemed to follow a pattern when committing crime.
用例4:Follow the instructions shown on the manual.
用例5:To place an order, follow the example shown below.




用例1:She wants to pursue a career in the entertainment industry.
用例2:The non-profitable group pursues humanitarian policy.
用例3:The company is prepared to pursue the matter in court.
用例4:Students develop something of an expertise when they pursue an interest.
用例5:He plans to attend the university to pursue his goal of practicing law.




用例1:The dog ran in circles chasing its tail.
用例2:The hunters chase ducks throughout the region.
用例3:The dog chased the ball.
用例4:Maybe the lady I am seeking never existed and I am chasing a mirage.
用例5:Dan spent most of his college days chasing girls.


そこから比喩的に、chase a mirage(幻を追う)とかchase1girls(女の子の尻を追いかける)といった用法も出てきます。




用例1:There are many ways to avoid war.
用例2:Many people suffer from allergies.
用例3:Many cases of asthma may be due to chemicals.
用例4:The employees have been squeezed in many respects.
用例5:It’s been many years since I last went to a beautiful beach.


用例1:You pay too much attention to your appearance.
用例2:She doesn’t have much money and her daily life is so simple.
用例3:With much effort, he obtained his first guitar at 15.
用例4:He has devoted much time to this project.
用例5:I had so much fun listening to this CD.

(3)a lot of

用例1:A lot of people support the new candidate.
用例2:I spend a lot of money on clothes.
用例3:You will need a lot of time to finish this jigsaw puzzle.
用例4:A lot of work must be done before sunset.
用例5:There are a lot of things you can learn from movies.

「many」は可算名詞、「much」は不可算名詞、「a lot of」はその両方を修飾します。


これに対してa lot ofとかlots ofは口語的です。

用例で一緒に使う名詞を比較してみると、manyの後にはpeople以外はcases、respects、そしてmuchの後にはattention(注意)、effort(努力)など少し堅い言葉がきているのに対して、a lot ofの方はmoney、time、work、thingなどの日常語がきていることからもその違いが分かるでしょう。

manyとa lot ofの共通語としてはpeopleの頻度が高くなっています。

これはmany (a lot of) people…という言い回しで一般的に「よくあること」を表現する際に多用されるからです。

これに対してmuchとa lot ofの場合には共通語はmoneyとtime。


a lot of:可算名詞、不可算名詞の両方を修飾



用例1:The Big Bang Theory is the dominant scientific theory about the origin of the universe.
用例2:We’re having many typhoons this year and there was a big one last week.
用例3:Stop making a big deal out of nothing.
用例4:I knew I made a big mistake when I started abusing drugs.


用例1:A large number of people in this country practice yoga.
用例2:France produces a large quantity of wine.
用例3:My room is dominated by large scale trains and other models.
用例4:Large proportion of camera phone users are sending photo messages to friends.


bigとの結びつきはBig Bang(ビッグバン)のような用語の他に、a big deal(大したこと)、a big mistake(大きな間違い)、a big difference(大きな違い)といった高頻度フレーズがきています。


用例1:Since the expectations are high, he feels a huge amount of pressure.
用例2:The organization had a huge sum of money hidden in a secret bank account.
用例3:The singer performed in front of a huge crowd.
用例4:A huge quantity of natural gas has been discovered.


用例1:I expected a great deal.
用例2:The band had great success on their first album.
用例3:It is a great pleasure to have you here today.
用例4:Regular exercises will lessen stress to a great extent.






用例1:Put your hand on the mouse and click the right button.
用例2:Put your left arm around his right shoulder and we can start the dance.
用例3:Society is putting pressure on smokers.




用例1:The team have set themselves a target of finishing third.
用例2:Let us set the standard toward which our children can strive.
用例3:At the casino, I set a daily limit of what I allow myself to lose.




用例1:To alleviate the problem of drug abuse, we are planning to place the emphasis on education rather than treatment.
用例2:The construction of new highways is placing a heavy burden on tax payers.
用例3:The new president placed his hand on the bible and made his oath.




用例1:The group is working to lay a foundation for peace between the two conflicting nations.
用例2:They laid the blame on me.
用例3:Close your eyes and lay your hand on the table.


具体的なものもきますが、特に結びつきが強いのはfoundation(基礎)、blame(非難)、stress, emphasis(強調)といった抽象的な名詞です。



用例1:The old man leaned forward to rest his elbow on his knee.
用例2:Rest your head on my shoulder.
用例3:She rests her chin on the edge of the sofa.






用例1:This may seem like a childish game, but I must admit it is fun.
用例2:He played a childish prank on me.
用例3:A female voice-over talent speaks for the boy character, because the boy has to have the same childish voice for many years during the series.
用例4:I told him that his childish behavior would not be tolerated.
用例5:I need to put away my childish fantasies.



childish gameはやや中立的な言い回しで「子供向けのゲーム」のことを指します。


用例1:The shopkeeper is an enchanting man with childlike innocence.
用例2:My mother opened her gifts with childlike delight.
用例3:An artist sees things with childlike wonder.
用例4:Sometimes they act in childlike ways that are hard to understand.
用例5:He apologized to me for his childlike behavior.




用例1:The larvae undergo several changes in form, finally becoming small immature adults.
用例2:I determined that this animal was an immature female.
用例3:Immature males may show a few cream colored edges on feathers near the alula.
用例4:Immature births are those with birthweight less than 2,500 grams.






用例1:The accident taught him a lesson and made him stop drinking.
用例2:It is sometimes fun and sometimes difficult to teach a child how to read.
用例3:She learned to knit when her grandmother taught her the skill at age five.
用例4:The foreign missionaries taught language to the locals.
用例5:She is teaching students how to speak English.




用例1:You must train your staff to improve service.
用例2:Most people do not know how to train their dog.
用例3:We are training teachers for our new class.
用例4:The organization has been training people with disabilities.
用例5:The center is developing new programs to train nurses.



用例1:Forest Rangers educate the public in fire prevention.
用例2:More and more parents in the U.S. are choosing to educate their children at home.
用例3:Their job is to educate people about the importance of sanitation.
用例4:We need to educate drivers about child passenger safety.
用例5:The organization works to educate practitioners about the importance of immunizations.







用例1:The dog can push the door open by himself.
用例2:Push the button to answer the quiz.
用例3:Chris stood up, pushing his chair away in frustration.
用例4:I saw her pushing a pram with a newborn baby in it.
用例5:Pushing a loaded trolley around a supermarket is hard work.




用例1:Press the green button to open the door.
用例2:Press any key to continue.
用例3:Press TAB twice to position your cursor under the right position.
用例4:She pressed her lips to his.
用例5:Press bell for night watchman.



press one’s lipsというのはkissの別表現です。


用例1:He shoved open the door and raced into the room.
用例2:He shoved his hand into the front pocket of his jeans and pulled out a coin.
用例3:He shoved his chair violently aside and left the room in anger.
用例4:I shoved the book into my desk.
用例5:Adam shoved the man back into the chair.






用例1:The late stage of Alzheimer’s disease may last several years.
用例2:I like to draw, especially in the late afternoon when shadows are longer.
用例3:My sister’s late arrival was due to the flight delay from Sea-Tac airport.
用例4:The Institute is dedicated to understanding problems of late development within local communities.
用例5:I had nothing to do last Friday, so I just watched some late night TV.




用例1:Delayed healing following a fracture can occur for many reasons.
用例2:While most people do not have a delayed reaction to allergy testing, it occasionally does happen.
用例3:This remedy is useful for delayed shock.
用例4:Delayed payment can function with credit cards, cheques and even postal orders.





用例1:I was so drunk I felt like I was moving in slow motion.
用例2:Slow progress is better than none.
用例3:Voters were frustrated with slow pace of change.
用例4:Yoga uses slow movement.






用例1:I had a frightening experience of being attacked on the street.
用例2:A frightening thought just occurred.
用例3:The show was the most frightening thing I have ever seen.
用例4:AIDS devastates African nations with frightening speed.
用例5:It was the most frightening moment of my life.





用例1:If our enemies dare to strike us, they will face fearful consequences.
用例2:A fearful future lies ahead of us if we continue the war on terror like we have so far.
用例3:I was in my cottage, when I heard the sheep out in the barn making a fearful commotion.
用例4:A fearful silence filled the room.
用例5:During the journey, we experienced a fearful storm.




用例1:The robbery was a terrifying ordeal for all of us.
用例2:The roller coaster ride was a terrifying experience for me.
用例3:Losing PC data is a terrifying prospect.
用例4:The hotline is for people who have experienced terrifying violence.
用例5:Terrifying screams are the key to a good horror movie.

「terrifying」は、very frighteningという感じで、恐怖感をいっそう募らせたような単語です。





用例1:Water skiing is best done in calm water.
用例2:We rowed our boat out into the calm sea.
用例3:The policeman talked to the victim in a calm voice.
用例4:This area has been rocked by riots but is in relatively calm condition now.
用例5:Meditation is the best way to have a calm mind.





用例1:Because of the mild winter this year, flower buds are up already.
用例2:Western Oregon has a mind climate.
用例3:We took advantage of the mild weather and went out for a walk.
用例4:The mild tone of our discussion took a turn when I asked him a political question.
用例5:The day was partly cloudy with a mild breeze from the south.





用例1:The soft lights make dust and dirt less visible.
用例2:She sang a lullaby in a soft voice.
用例3:The old man gazed at the soft glow coming from the bamboo tree.
用例4:The soft sound of the waves fits the rhythm of bossa nova.
用例5:His kiss was like a soft breeze you feel on a spring day.






用例1:The rain fell softly on the forest floor.
用例2:I just got news that turnover fell for the third straight quarter.
用例3:Prices have fallen about five percent since February.
用例4:Profits fell much sharper than we anticipated this quarter.
用例5:Interest rates fell by a quarter of a percentage point.


用例1:The temperature dropped below zero last night.
用例2:The wind dropped as soon as we went to sail.
用例3:The aircraft dropped momentarily, but soon recovered altitude.
用例4:Her voice drops as soon as she gets off the phone.
用例5:SUV sales have dropped by ten percent compared to last year.

(3)go down

用例1:The only thing I can guarantee in this world is that the sun will go down and the sun will go up.
用例2:The most exciting part of the night for me is when the lights go down before the show.
用例3:They think that his boat went down off the southeastern coast of Sri Lanka.
用例4:Prices of consumer goods in Japan have gone down for the last few years.
用例5:Interest rates will go down to create impetus for consumers to spend.

「fall」「drop」「go down」にはすべて「物理的に落下する」という意味と、「値段や数値などが低下する」という意味があります。



dropは「一直線にすとんと真下に落ちる」感じで、go downはそれよりは徐々に階段や坂などを少しずつ下りる感じです。



go downは、price、rateと似たような単語と使いますが、急激に落ちるという感じはありません。

go down:一般的に「落ちる」「下がる」



用例1:This new DVD edition is acceptable, despite its soft picture and muffled sound.
用例2:The interview should be recorded loud enough to pick up the faint sounds.
用例3:Generally speaking, the term soundtrack refers to the recorded sound in a motion picture.
用例4:He headed in the direction the strange sound was coming from.
用例5:As I walked closer to the old house, I heard the familiar sound of my mother’s voice.





用例1:Many dogs are afraid of loud noises like thunder storm.
用例2:Suddenly, strange noises started to come from the box.
用例3:It was around four o’clock when we heard a funny noise coming down the road.
用例4:We listened to the soothing noise of crickets chirping in the yard.





用例1:She bent over to say something in a hushed tone of voice.
用例2:You’ll grab the audience heart faster, if your message is delivered in a conversational tone.
用例3:She said in a matter-of-fact tone, “How do you like your tea? With milk or lemon?”
用例4:With bows and smiles, he asked in a wheedling tone.







用例1:An interesting feature of this ancient building is the flat roof.
用例2:I want to have some interesting reading about jazz.
用例3:See page 20 for an interesting example.
用例4:The interesting thing was that although he skipped classes, he was still getting good grades.





用例1:He is really proving to be an exciting prospect for the future.
用例2:This is an exciting development for the entire region.
用例3:Coming to Japan was an exciting opportunity for us.
用例4:This exciting possibility is quickly turning into a reality because of the energy of people like him.





用例1:She told a very amusing anecdote about the trophy.
用例2:I thought it was an amusing story, but also a bit crazy.
用例3:This story is about an amusing incident that happened in one of my classes.




用例1:Thailand was an enjoyable experience.
用例2:Spend an enjoyable evening at the ballpark.
用例3:Planning ahead is the key to an enjoyable outing.






用例1:They live on the main road out of town.
用例2:The main aim of health research is to improve people’s health.
用例3:What is the main reason for terrorism in Iraq?
用例4:Our main concern is the weather for this weekend.
用例5:Power politics remains the main source of threats to world peace.





用例1:He has been appointed Chief Executive of a large enterprise.
用例2:I wrote a detailed letter to the chief officer of police.
用例3:Inspectors can be promoted to chief inspector.
用例4:Experienced technicians can become chief engineers.
用例5:Our Chief Secretary was forced to resign due to a scandal.


用例1:The role of a principal officer is broad and varied.
用例2:As the loan is gradually rapid, the proportion of principal repayment becomes higher.
用例3:This classification scheme uses principal component analysis.
用例4:He was the principal minister who oversaw the negotiations.
用例5:I am the principal carer for my wife, who is an invalid.






用例1:Hold the bottom end of the stick.
用例2:If you’re at a loose end tonight, come to the party.
用例3:I want to go all the way to the far end of Sicily.
用例4:There are two restaurants: one near the road, and another at the opposite end of the beach.
用例5:He managed to grab the other end of the rope.




用例1:A logical conclusion has to flow from facts.
用例2:An attorney makes a tentative conclusion and then develops the facts to support the conclusion.
用例3:This provided enough evidence to draw a firm conclusion.
用例4:I am glad at the successful conclusion of the elections.
用例5:Both men came to a similar conclusion.





用例1:As the final step, they retrowel the concrete surface with hand trowels to create a smooth finish.
用例2:Is it possible to obtain a matt finish by chemical treatment?
用例3:This wall has a textured finish.
用例4:The key to getting a perfect finish is adding just the right amount of thinner.
用例5:This is exterior paint with a sand-textured finish.

「finish」はfrom start to finish(始めから終わりまで)のように「終わり」という意味でも使いますが、前に形容詞がくると「塗装や研磨の仕上げ」という意味が圧倒的に多くなります。





用例1:I wish the war will end soon.
用例2:My first marriage ended in less than a year.
用例3:After the year ended, she moved from Tokyo to Nagoya.
用例4:The month will end with another trip to New York.
用例5:This free trial period will end on June 2nd.




用例1:The meal will finish at about 8:00 p.m.
用例2:I’ll bet you anything that our team finishes last.
用例3:What time does the game finish.
用例4:The natural secondary fermentation finished in six week.
用例5:When the tape finished, there was complete silence.



(3)be over

用例1:The war will be over in about three weeks.
用例2:Your days are over.
用例3:Vacation time is over and it is time to get back to our routine.
用例4:When this growth period is over you will be at your adult height.
用例5:The worst of Asia’s economic crisis was over by mid-1999.

「be over」は「ある出来事や時間などが終わって、もうそれ以上ない」というニュアンスです。


また、be overを使うとwar、crisisのような「悪いこと」が終わる、という意味をよく表します。

be over:済んでしまっている